1 Corinthians 4 – Apostles of Christ & Tomb of Apostle Philip Found

1 The Martyrium of St. Philip
The Martyrium of St. Philip
The imposing remains of the martyrium constructed in the first half of the 5th century in memory of St. Philip can be seen on slightly higher ground just outside the city defence walls.

The efforts of St. Philip resulted in the foundation here of one of the first Christian communities and one of the first Christian churches. After Philip’s I crucifixion by the Romans in 80 his son continued the work of proselytism.

Although it would seem reasonable to assume that St. Philip was buried on the site of the ruins of this martyrium no trace has been found of his grave.

The martyrium itself is an octagonal structure on foundations measuring approximately 20 x 20 m.

Access to the martyrium is afforded by a monumental flight of steps leading up to the building on the side towards the city.

It’s pretty clear that many of the Corinthians basically ignored YourFinger Pointing Up commands so tomorrow I would like to look more into…

1 Corinthians 4
Apostles of Christ

1 Let a man so account of us, as of the ministers of Christ, and stewards of the mysteries of God.

“Mysteries” – things that human wisdom cannot discover but that are now revealed by God to His people.

2 Moreover it is required in stewards that a man be found faithful.

3 But with me it is a very small thing that I should be judged of you, or of man’s judgment: yea, I judge not mine own self.

“Judge not mine own self” – his judgment was merely human, and his conscience may be mistaken.  Only God is fully qualified to judge.

4 For I know nothing by myself; yet am I not hereby justified: but he that judgeth me is the Lord.

5 Therefore judge nothing before the time, until the Lord come, who both will bring to light the hidden things of darkness, and will make manifest the counsels of the hearts: and then shall every man have praise of God.

6 And these things, brethren, I have in a figure transferred to myself and to Apollos for your sakes; that ye might learn in us not to think of men above that which is written, that no one of you be puffed up for one against another.

“Learn in us not to think of men above that which is written” – perhaps a proverb common among the rabbis.

“Which is written” – in Scripture.  Our view of man should be Biblical.  We should recognize man’s weakness and ever-present limitations.

“Be puffed up” – one of the root causes of divisions, e.g., different religions, government and state laws, etc.

7 For who maketh thee to differ from another? And what hast thou that thou didst not receive? Now if thou didst receive it, why dost thou glory, as if thou hadst not received it?

2 Mythical ‘Gate to Hell’
Mythical ‘Gate to Hell’ uncovered in Turkey
Archaeologists reportedly have uncovered the cave believed to be Pluto’s Gate, the mythological portal to hell, in the ancient city of Hierapolis in southern Turkey.

The site was located among ruins in the area, Italian archaeologists said, according to a report on Discovery.com. Hierapolis is now known as Pamukkale.

Pluto’s Gate was celebrated as the portal to the underworld in Greco-Roman mythology. Pluto was the Greek god of the underworld.

8 Now ye are full, now ye are rich, ye have reigned as kings without us: and I would to God ye did reign, that we also might reign with you.

Paul uses irony and sarcasm here to get the Corinthians to see how poor they are because of their haughtiness and spiritual immaturity in comparison with apostles. 

In the Corinthian epistles, Paul repeatedly uses a subtle form of irony (the use of a positive statement when a negative idea is intended).

9 For I think that God hath set forth us the apostles last, as it were appointed to death: for we are made a spectacle unto the world, and to angels, and to men.

10 We are fools for Christ’s sake, but ye are wise in Christ; we are weak, but ye are strong; ye are honorable, but we are despised.

11 Even unto this present hour we both hunger, and thirst, and are naked, and are buffeted, and have no certain dwelling place;

4:11-13 – a graphic description of Paul’s condition in Ephesus right up to the writing.

12 And labor, working with our own hands: being reviled, we bless; being persecuted, we suffer it:

13 Being defamed, we entreat: we are made as the filth of the world, and are the off scouring of all things unto this day.

14 I write not these things to shame you, but as my beloved sons I warn you.

15 For though ye have ten thousand instructors in Christ, yet have ye not many fathers: for in Christ Jesus I have begotten you through the gospel.

16 Wherefore I beseech you, be ye followers of me.

3 Two unique marble statues
Two unique marble statues which once warned of a deadly cave in the ancient Phrygian city of Hierapolis, near Pamukkale.
Known as Pluto’s Gate — Ploutonion in Greek, Plutonium in Latin — the cave was celebrated as the portal to the underworld in Greco-Roman mythology and tradition.

“The statues represent two mythological creatures,” D’Andria told Discovery News. “One depicts a snake, a clear symbol of the underworld, the other shows Kerberos, or Cerberus, the three-headed watchdog of hell in the Greek mythology.”

17 For this cause have I sent unto you Timotheus, who is my beloved son, and faithful in the Lord, who shall bring you into remembrance of my ways which be in Christ, as I teach everywhere in every church.

18 Now some are puffed up, as though I would not come to you.

“Some” – some of the Corinthians who were trying to undercut Paul’s authority were teaching that he was unstable (2 Cor 1:17) and that his ministry was not important (2 Cor 10:10)

19 But I will come to you shortly, if the Lord will, and will know, not the speech of them which are puffed up, but the power.

20 For the kingdom of God is not in word, but in power.

“Kingdom of God” – God’s present reign in the lives of His people – that dynamic new life in Christ (2 Cor 5:17), the power of the new birth (Jn 3:3-8), showing itself in humble life, dedicated to Christ and His church.

“Not in word, but in power” – idle, empty talk is contrasted with the genuine power of the Holy Ghost.

Idle talk, like you hear come out of Obama’s mouth.

21 What will ye? Shall I come unto you with a rod, or in love, and in the spirit of meekness?

Tomb of Apostle Philip Found

Amid the remains of a 4th or 5th century church at Hierapolis, one of the most significant Christian sites in Turkey, Francesco D’Andria found this 1st century Roman tomb that he believes once held the remains of the apostle Philip.

4 Amid the remains
Amid the remains of a fourth or fifth century church at Hierapolis, one of the most significant Christian sites in Turkey, Francesco D’Andria found this first-century Roman tomb that he believes once held the remains of the apostle Philip.

At about the same time as the July/August 2011 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review was hitting the newsstands, containing an article about St. Philip’s Martyrium, author and excavation director Francesco D’Andria was making an exciting new discovery in the field at Hierapolis, one of the most significant sites in Christian Turkey.

The tomb wasn’t discovered at the center of the octagonal hilltop martyrium as long expected, however, but in a newly excavated church about 40 yards away. D’Andria’s team found a 1st century Roman tomb located at the center of the new church, which he says originally contained Philip’s remains.

This early church of Christian Turkey was built around the tomb in the 4th or 5th century, and the nearby martyrium was built around the same time, in the early 5th century.

A team led by excavation director Francesco D’Andria in Hierapolis also uncovered the remains of Pluto’s Gate, a site considered an entrance into the underworld in the Greco-Roman period.

The remains of the apostle Philip are no longer in the tomb, however. According to D’Andria, the saint’s relics were very likely moved from Hierapolis to Constantinople at the end of the 6th century

5 This sixth century
This sixth-century bread stamp shows two churches from the site of Hierapolis in Christian Turkey: the domed martyrium on the right, and the newly-discovered church containing Philip’s tomb on the left.

And then possibly taken to Rome and placed in the newly dedicated Church of St. Philip and St. John (now the Church of the Holy Apostles), although 12th century reports describe seeing Philip’s remains still in Constantinople, the seat of Christian Turkey.

This new discovery also sheds light on the wonderful imagery of the rare 6th century bronze bread stamp from the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts.

The structures on either side of the saint can now be identified as the domed martyrium (on the right) and the new Byzantine basilical church containing the tomb of the apostle Philip (on the left), both of which were important Christian sites in Turkey. 

…the Consequences of Sin.

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