Amos 2 – Prophecy Against Israel & Queen Nefertiti vs. Cleopatra

Both of them women did quite well, maybe the United States needs a female president, but not Hillary.  The only difference between her and Obama is that she’s ten times smarter than him.

Let’s look at another popular pharaoh, let’s look at…

Amos 2
Prophecy Against Israel

1 Thus saith the LORD; For three transgressions of Moab, and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof; because he burned the bones of the king of Edom into lime:

Known in the Bible as Kir, Kir Moab, Kir-Heres(eth), and Hereseth, this site (modern Kerak) was the capital city of Moab. It is situated on an isolated hilltop, with a view in all directions. The Crusaders recognized the defensible aspect of the site and in AD 1140 they made Kerak one of their strongest fortresses in the Middle East. The remains of the Crusader castle are shown here.

“Burnt the bones of the king of Edom” – thus depriving the king’s spirit of the rest that was widely believed to result from decent burial.

2 But I will send a fire upon Moab, and it shall devour the palaces of Kerioth: and Moab shall die with tumult, with shouting, and with the sound of the trumpet:

“Kerioth” – perhaps a plural noun meaning “cities” (therefore “citadels of her cities”) or the name of a major town and shrine of Chemosh, the national god of Moab.

3 And I will cut off the judge from the midst thereof, and will slay all the princes thereof with him, saith the LORD.

4 Thus saith the LORD; For three transgressions of Judah, and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof; because they have despised the law of the LORD, and have not kept his commandments, and their lies caused them to err, after the which their fathers have walked:

“Despised the law of the LORD” – Judah’s sins differed in kind from those of the other nations.  Those nations violated the generally recognized laws of humanity, but Judah disobeyed the revealed law of God.  These sins may be included in the indictment against Israel that follows.

5 But I will send a fire upon Judah, and it shall devour the palaces of Jerusalem.

“Fire…devour the palaces” – Judah’s punishment is the same as Aram’s, Gaza’s, Tyre’s, Edom’s, Ammon’s – loss of the defenses and wealth in which they trusted.  These eight oracles reveal Amos’s incredible literary skill.

Seven times “I will send fire” is followed by two triads, “on the wall” and “upon” (Teman), followed by seven times “it shall devour,” followed by another triadic dual, “its palaces” and “the palaces of Jerusalem” and a final triad, “I will cut off.” 

The modern town of er-Rabbah preserves the ancient name of Rabbah Moab. In the Roman and Byzantine period, the city was known as Areopolis (City of [the god] Mars).

According to an inscription, this Roman temple was dedicated to the emperors Diocletian and Maximian, who ruled jointly from AD 286-305.

Amos was hardly a simple shepherd.

6 Thus saith the LORD; For three transgressions of Israel, and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof; because they sold the righteous for silver, and the poor for a pair of shoes;

Israel’s sins revealed the general moral deterioration of the nation.

“The righteous” – probably those who were not in debt and whom there was no lawful reason to sell.

“The poor” – God had commanded that they be helped (Deut 15:7-11).

“A man and his father will go in unto the same maid” – whether the girl in question was a household servant (in which case father and son used her as a family prostitute) is not clear. 

In any case, the law required that if there was sexual relations with a girl, marriage was obligatory (Ex 22:16; Deut 22:28-29).  For a father and son to have sexual relations with the same girl or woman was strictly forbidden (Lev 18:7-8, 15, 20:11-12).

7 That pant after the dust of the earth on the head of the poor, and turn aside the way of the meek: and a man and his father will go in unto the same maid, to profane my holy name:

8 And they lay themselves down upon clothes laid to pledge by every altar, and they drink the wine of the condemned in the house of their god.

“Clothes laid to pledge” – the law prohibited keeping a man’s cloak overnight as a pledge (Ex 22:26-27; Deut 24:12-13), or taking a widow’s cloak at all (Deut 24:17).

Located about 6 miles (10 km) south of the Arnon Valley, Balu is the largest Iron Age site in the area. Part of the kingdom of Moab in the Iron II period, this site was inhabited from the Early Bronze period to the Mamluk period.

Interest in the site peaked after the discovery of the Stela of Balu in 1930. It is possible that the biblical “City of Moab” (“Ar of Moab”) was located here (Num 21:28; Isa 15:1).

“By every altar…in the house of their god” – Israelites who broke the laws protecting the powerless brazenly used their wrongly gotten gains even in places supposed to be holy.

9 Yet destroyed I the Amorite before them, whose height was like the height of the cedars, and he was strong as the oaks; yet I destroyed his fruit from above, and his roots from beneath.

10 Also I brought you up from the land of Egypt, and led you forty years through the wilderness, to possess the land of the Amorite.

11 And I raised up of your sons for prophets, and of your young men for Nazarites. Is it not even thus, O ye children of Israel? saith the LORD.

“I raised up…prophets, and…Nazarites” – prophets, as God’s faithful spokesmen (Deut 18:15-19) and Nazarites, as those uniquely dedicated to Him (Num 6:1-21; Jud 13:5), are singled out as special gifts to His people, like Samson.

These persons who were outside the priesthood were used by God through word and example to call His people to faithfulness.

12 But ye gave the Nazarites wine to drink; and commanded the prophets, saying, Prophesy not.

13 Behold, I am pressed under you, as a cart is pressed that is full of sheaves.

14 Therefore the flight shall perish from the swift, and the strong shall not strengthen his force, neither shall the mighty deliver himself:

15 Neither shall he stand that handleth the bow; and he that is swift of foot shall not deliver himself: neither shall he that rideth the horse deliver himself.

16 And he that is courageous among the mighty shall flee away naked in that day, saith the LORD.

Nefertiti and Cleopatra

Cleopatra, King Tut, and Nefertiti.
Hand painted papyrus

Egyptian ancient civilization was born along the Nile River and lived for more than 3,000 years. Not only famous for the pyramids at Giza staying there with dignity reminding the wonderful past, Egypt is also famous for its pharaohs.

Nefertiti and Cleopatra important figures of Egypt, famous for their beauties and deeds appear remarkable in many parts of the great ancient history.

Staying in front of each other these queens have so many differences but so many things in common too. Each lady has her own personality and beauty and did great things for her country and people. But what do modern and ancient people think about them? Do they respect and admire them the same?

Nefertiti

Queen Nefertiti was much more than a pretty woman. Her role and importance of the 18th dynasty during her husband’s, Amenhotep IV, ruling or Amarna period in Egypt is undeniable. However, not much information has come from antiquity to our hands.

Nefertiti with her husband Pharaoh Akhenaten and her three oldest daughters.
(Painting based on a stela).

Her being or not of a royal blood is not ensured. Even though, the suggestion that Nefertiti was of a non-royal birth and that her parents were “members of the court circle” dominate. It is also suggested that she was a cousin of the pharaoh Amenhotep IV, later Akhenaton.

Nefertiti was married to Amenhotep and had six daughters together. The pharaoh loved her very much and was influenced a lot by her too. Her charismatic beauty made her husband call her “sweet of love”, “possessed of charm” and the official recognition as the “exquisite beauty of the sun-disk”.

Even her name means “a beautiful woman has come”. During the reign of Amenhotep complete reforms were made in the fields of politics and religion. But the pharaoh was not very interested in foreign relationship and there were revolts in the occupied territories like Syria and Palestine.

Cleopatra

The marble busts of Cleopatra do not reveal a ravishing beauty, but neither do they portray an ugly woman.

 Cleopatra, being the last pharaoh of Egypt, ruling before the Romans took control, is known for:

1. Her affairs with Roman commanders Julius Caesar and Mark Antony, by whom she had three children, and

2. Her suicide by snake bite after her husband or partner Antony took his own life. Many have assumed she was a beauty, but, unlike Nefertiti, Cleopatra was probably not. Instead, she was smart and politically valuable.

Some say Cleopatra was extremely beautiful and some say she is disgustingly ugly, but the marble busts of her places her in the middle.  I have read that she was “plain looking and extremely skinny.”  I doubt it would matter when she had all the power and wealth that she had.

Cleopatra VII

Cleopatra came to power in Egypt at the age of 17. She reigned from 51-30 B.C. As a Ptolemy, she was Macedonian, but even though her ancestry was Macedonian, she was still an Egyptian queen and worshiped as a god.

Since Cleopatra was legally obliged to have either a brother or son for her consort, she married brother Ptolemy XIII when he was 12. Following the death of Ptolemy XIII, Cleopatra married an even younger brother, Ptolemy XIV. In time she ruled along with her son Caesarion.

After the death of Cleopatra, Octavian took control of Egypt, putting it into Roman hands. 

King Tut (King Tutankhamun).