2 Timothy 1 – Appeals for Faithfulness & Edgar Allen Poe and God

Hands Out1 16Poe had a twisted mind, and a fantastic imagination, but personally, I think Poe was a great writer.  I would put Poe and Franz Kafka in the same category.

God does not judge us by our behavior, but by the heart:

“…for the LORD seeth not as man seeth; for man looketh on the outward appearance, but the LORD looketh on the heart” (1 Sam 16:7).

For example, if you murder someone God does not judge you for the murder, He judges you of why you committed murder which is obvious that you have an evil heart.

Therefore, what Poe wrote does not make him evil.  I’m a Christian, through and through.  Jesus is my Lord and nothing is more important to me than Him and I love the song “I Can Only Imagine,” by MercyMe, but I also like most of the rock-n-roll bands of the 70s.  Does that make me evil?

There is one more Lost City of the America’s, so tomorrow we’ll look at…

2 Timothy 1
Appeals for Faithfulness

2 121 Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, according to the promise of life which is in Christ Jesus,

“According to the promised of life” – Paul’s being chosen to be an apostle was in keeping with that promise because apostles were appointed to preach and explain the good news that eternal life is available to all who will receive it through faith in Christ.

2 To Timothy, my dearly beloved son: Grace, mercy, and peace, from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Lord.

3 I thank God, whom I serve from my forefathers with pure conscience, that without ceasing I have remembrance of thee in my prayers night and day;

“I thank God…without ceasing” – meaning that Paul thanked God every day just for being Him.  We can and should thank Him for all that He does and even anything He does do for us because He has a reason for not doing something at our request.  We thank Him for being our Father.  Don’t you thank you parents for being who they are?

4 Greatly desiring to see thee, being mindful of thy tears, that I may be filled with joy;

5 When I call to remembrance the unfeigned faith that is in thee, which dwelt first in thy grandmother Lois, and thy mother Eunice; and I am persuaded that in thee also.

6 Wherefore I put thee in remembrance that thou stir up the gift of God, which is in thee by the putting on of my hands.

3 13“Stir up the gift of God” – Gifts are not given in full bloom; they need to be developed through use.

“By the putting on of my hands” – Paul was God’s instrument, through whom the gift came from the Holy Ghost to Timothy.

7 For God hath not given us the spirit of fear; but of power, and of love, and of a sound mind.

8 Be not thou therefore ashamed of the testimony of our Lord, nor of me his prisoner: but be thou partaker of the afflictions of the gospel according to the power of God;

9 Who hath saved us, and called us with a holy calling, not according to our works, but according to his own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world began,

“Not according to our works, but according to his own purpose and grace” – Salvation is by grace alone and is based not on human effort but on God’s saving plan and the gracious gift of His Son (see Rom 3:28: Eph 2:8-9; Tit 3:5).

“Before the world began” – God’s plan to save lost sinners was made in eternity past (see Eph 1:4; 1 Pet 1:20; Rev 13:8).

10 But is now made manifest by the appearing of our Savior Jesus Christ, who hath abolished death, and hath brought life and immortality to light through the gospel:

4 1211 Whereunto I am appointed a preacher, and an apostle, and a teacher of the Gentiles.

12 For the which cause I also suffer these things: nevertheless I am not ashamed: for I know whom I have believed, and am persuaded that he is able to keep that which I have committed unto him against that day.

Cf. Phil 1:6.

13 Hold fast the form of sound words, which thou hast heard of me, in faith and love which is in Christ Jesus.

14 That good thing which was committed unto thee keep by the Holy Ghost which dwelleth in us.

“That good thing…committed unto thee” – the gospel.  Paul gives the same command in 1 Tim 6:20.5 8

15 This thou knowest, that all they which are in Asia be turned away from me; of whom are Phygellus and Hermogenes.

16 The Lord give mercy unto the house of Onesiphorus; for he oft refreshed me, and was not ashamed of my chain:

17 But, when he was in Rome, he sought me out very diligently, and found me.

18 The Lord grant unto him that he may find mercy of the Lord in that day: and in how many things he ministered unto me at Ephesus, thou knowest very well.

Edgar Allan Poe and God

6 6A common, almost automatic, assumption about Poe is that he was an irredeemable atheist. As with so many other aspects of Poe’s life, however, the truth is far less simplistic.

Unfortunately, nowhere in Poe’s writings do we find a straightforward and definitive statement of his position on this topic. (Nor, perhaps, should we expect one.) We are, therefore, left to difine it for ourselves.

Those who knew Poe and were quick to recall him as having no religion, such as R. W. Griswold and J. H. Hopkins, were often themselves quite zealous in their views. Effusive enthusiasm was likely to raise Poe’s sense of the contrary.

Poe loved to startle or surprise, and was likely to say something merely for effect. Others assume his position based on the negative evidence that there is no overtly moral preaching and relatively little mention of religion in his writings. Some have suggested, rather dramatically, that Poe’s only god was Art.

Poe’s upbringing in this regard appears to have been quite typical for his era. By all accounts, Francis Allan, Poe’s foster-mother, was a pious and deeply religious woman.

7 Rufus Wilmot
Rufus Wilmot Griswold (February 13, 1815 – August 27, 1857) was an American anthologist, editor, poet, and critic.
Born in Vermont, Griswold left home when he was 15 years old.

He worked as a journalist, editor, and critic in Philadelphia, New York City, and elsewhere.

He built up a strong literary reputation, in part due to his 1842 collection The Poets and Poetry of America.

This anthology, the most comprehensive of its time, included what he deemed the best examples of American poetry.

He produced revised versions and similar anthologies for the remainder of his life, although many of the poets he promoted have since faded into obscurity.

Many writers hoped to have their work included in one of these editions, although they commented harshly on Griswold’s abrasive character.

Griswold was married three times: his first wife died young, his second marriage ended in a public and controversial divorce, and his third wife left him after the previous divorce was almost repealed.

Edgar Allan Poe, whose poetry had been included in Griswold’s anthology, published a critical response that questioned which poets were included.

This began a rivalry which grew when Griswold succeeded Poe as editor of Graham’s Magazine at a higher salary than Poe’s.
Later, the two competed for the attention of poet Frances Sargent Osgood.
They never reconciled their differences and, after Poe’s mysterious death in 1849, Griswold wrote an unsympathetic obituary.
Claiming to be Poe’s chosen literary executor, he began a campaign to harm Poe’s reputation that lasted until his own death eight years later.

John Allan, while apparently less religious than his wife, strongly adhered to such Christian virtues as hard work, honesty and thriftiness, though one might question the depth of his sense of charity or forgiveness.

When the Monumental Episcopal Church was built in 1814, John Allan purchased pew number 80 for $340 (Poe Log, p. 21). Francis and Edgar regularly attended services there.

John Allan, raised as a Scotch Presbyterian, may have visited from time to time, if only for maintaining business contacts in the community.

Some say that the Presbyterians do not believe in Jesus, that they are evil.  I don’t study all the different religions to know if they are evil or not, but many of them are obvious. 

I say that all religions are all incorrect and improper because Jesus was not a religion, He is God and therefore we should follow the faith of any religion, our faith should be in Jesus only.

Therefore, I cannot agree or disagree about the Presbyterians.  Yet, I believe at one time there were really only two main religions, the Catholics and the Presbyterians. 

Martin Luther was a Presbyterian and fought against the Catholic Church.  The Catholic was so furious they tried to kill him. 

I’ve read a lot about Martin Luther and the Catholics and in my opinion, Martin Luther would never side with anything evil, no more than Paul or Jesus would.

And of course, the Catholics would never side with anything holy unless they could make a buck.

Aside from that, this is what I have found online about the Presbyterian’s opinion about Jesus:

Presbyterians believe that Jesus Christ is “fully human and fully divine, one person in two natures, without confusion and without change, without separation and without division.”

This statement dates all the way back to the 5th century (451 to be exact) and is known as the Chalcedonian Definition.

Emphasized by the Reformers of the 16th century, it is reflected in virtually all Reformed work on Christology, as well as in the Confessions.

The people who wrote the Chalcedonian statement were, like us, trying to figure out what it means to confess that Jesus Christ is divine as well as human.

One of the surviving artifacts from Moldavia, John Allan’s elegant Richmond mansion, is a large painting of “the holy family,” a nativity scene complete with putti and seraphim. (This painting is now part of the collection of the Poe Museum in Richmond, VA.)

At least one illegitimate child, for whom Allan at least accepted a share of the financial obligations, indicates a personal weakness which clearly goes against the teachings of the church.

One must be careful, however, not to rush to use this flaw to negate all possibility that Allan sincerely believed in God or morality.

Even the best of intentions sometimes fail to control our actions, a theme Poe would enshrine in several stories, most notably in “The Black Cat” and “The Imp of the Perverse.”

Details of Poe’s personal exposure to religion are sparse but compelling. Not quite three years old, Edgar was baptized on January 7, 1812 by the Reverend John Buchanan, with John and Frances Allan as his godparents. (This event is the origin of Allan appearing as Poe’s middle name.)

8 John Henry Hopkins
John Henry Hopkins (January 30, 1792 – January 9, 1868) was the first bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Vermont and was the eighth Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America.

Being baptized as a child or at any time does not mean anything.  A born-again believer usually gets baptized for the sole purpose of showing the world that they stand up for the Lord.

Although no actual record exists, T. O. Mabbott feels that Poe was probably confirmed at Monumental Episcopal Church by Bishop Richard Channing Moore (Mabbott, Poems, 1969, p. 536).

One must also remember the dominant role of Christianity in the United States in the 19th century, especially before Darwin’s theory of evolution and the unutterable horrors of the Civil War.

It would have been nearly impossible to avoid being bathed in a general consensus of the existence of God and the importance of religion.

One should not be surprised that one of the subjects Poe was taught at the London school of the Misses Dubourg was the Catechism of the Church of England (Poe Log, p. 10).

Anything connected to the Catholics is pure evil.  People that attend the Catholic Church does not mean they are evil and are going to hell.  Yet, those that believe what the Catholic teach will join them in hell.

That he was also given lessons of a religious nature at the school of Reverend Bransby seems inherently obvious. Poe’s description of school life in “William Wilson,” by Poe’s own admission based loosely on his own school days at Bransby’s Manor House School, suggests that there were mandatory morning and evening services every Sunday.

As an adult, Poe’s involvement with organized religion is less certain. To get out of West Point, Poe refused to attend classes or church services, clearly indicating that in prior months, he had gone to both.

When Poe married Virginia on May 16, 1836, their vows were administered by the Reverend Amasa Convers, a Presbyterian minister. In Fordham, NY, Poe often played cards with Jesuits who lived nearby.

The Reverend J. H. Hopkins’ letter to Mrs. Shew, quotes Poe (probably in 1848) as saying,

9 John Allan
John Allan became Edgar Poe’s foster father after the death of Eliza Poe. Allan, who provided an excellent education for his young charge, refused to adopt the child known as “Eddy.”

They were highly cultivated gentlemen and scholars . . . smoked, drank, and played cards like gentlemen, and never said a word about religion (John Henry Hopkins to Marie Louise Shew, Feb. 9, 1875, Ingram collection, item 201, reprinted in Miller, Building Poe Biography, p. 101).

It should be noted, of course, that Poe and Hopkins disliked each other intensely, for personal reasons. Poe apparently attended church with Mrs. Shew in New York in 1848. Indeed, the most revealing comment we have is from one of Poe’s letters to Mrs. Shew.

How can I believe in Providence when you look coldly upon me, was it not you who renewed my hopes and faith in God? . . . Why I was not a priest is a mystery, for I feel I am now a prophet . . . (Poe to Marie Louise Shew, June, 1848, Ostrom, Letters, p. 373).

To Thomas Holley Chivers, Poe wrote,

My own faith is indeed my own. You will find it, somewhat detailed, in a forthcoming number of the ‘Columbian Magazine’  (“Poe to Chivers, July 10, 1844, the story referenced being “Mesmeric Revelation”).

Poe’s small Bible, given to him by Mrs. Clemm in 1846, is presumed to have been one of the books in his trunk when he died. (This Bible, formerly part of the collection of the Bronx Historical Society in New York, now appears to be lost.

Phillips, 1:847 and 2:1546 notes that one of the passages marked, presumably by Poe, was the Lord ’s Prayer. Another, similarly marked, was

“I loathe it; I would not live alway; let me alone; for my days are vanity” (Job 7:16).

10 After Eliza Poe
After Eliza Poe died – leaving three small children motherless – Frances (“Fanny”) Allan agreed to care-for Edgar Poe.
Married to John Allan, who refused to adopt Edgar, Fanny was Poe’s much-loved foster mother until she, too, died of tuberculosis.

The source for this information appears to be an article from the Scranton Republican, June 21, 1883, p. 2. col. 3, reprinted from an unspecified issue of the New York Herald, about the sale of “Edgar Poe’s Cottage” in New York.

That sentence can confuse, its New York paper, but Poe’s house is in Philadelphia, I’ve been there.

In this article, Mrs. Cromwell is interviewed, and comments that she bought a mantle clock and rocking chair from Mrs. Clemm, but that Mrs. Clemm gave her the small bible, noting that “one passage was found marked” and citing the verse given, although without italics. The article is reprinted by K. Cameron in The New England Writers and the Press, 1980, p. 64.

Another book Poe presumably owned, as it contains some notes written in his own hand,  is the 1833 edition of the Rev. Thomas Chalmers’s On the Power, Wisdom, and Goodness of God, as Manifested in the Adaptation of External Nature to the Moral and Intellectual Constitution of Man, Philadelphia: Carey, Lea and Blanchard.

As the date of publication of this book predates by several years Poe’s career as a writer of critical reviews, it may be assumed that he read it for personal rather than merely professional reasons. This book is now in the Poe collection at the University of Texas at Austin.

What clues do we find in Poe’s own writings?

There are brief references to religion in letters and in “Marginalia,” but while hardly typical of an atheist, such phrases may be little more than clichés or figures of speech. At best, they are rather vague and lend themselves to multiple interpretations.

Two examples will suffice for our purposes.

After reading all that has been written, and after thinking all that can be thought, on the topics of God and the soul, the man who has a right to say that he thinks at all, will find himself face to face with the conclusion that, on these topics, the most profound thought is that which can be the least easily distinguished from the most superficial sentiment (“Marginalia,” Graham’s, Feb. 1848, reprinted in Pollin, Brevities, p. 330M199).

11 Monumental Church
Monumental Church is a former Episcopal Church that stands at 1224 E. Broad Street between N. 12th and College Streets in Richmond, Virginia.

Designed by architect Robert Mills, it is one of America’s earliest and most distinctive Greek Revival churches and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, is a National Historic Landmark and is located in the Court End historic district. Monumental Church was built between 1812 and 1814 to commemorate the 72 people who died on the site in the December 26, 1811 Richmond Theatre fire.

The building consists of two parts: a crypt and a church. The crypt is located beneath the sanctuary and contains the remains of those claimed by the fire. The church is an octagonal construction of brick and Aquia sandstone with a stucco coat.

A strong argument for the religion of Christ is this — that offenses against Charity are about the only ones which men on their death-beds can be made — not to understand — but to feel — as crime (“Marginalia,” SLM, July 1849, reprinted in Pollin, Brevities, p. 399M263).

Perhaps more significantly, Poe wrote a “Hymn [to the Virgin Mary]” (1833) as part of “Morella.” Removed from later versions of the story, it was nevertheless included as “Catholic Hymn” in The Raven and Other Poems (1845).

Another poem, “For Annie” (March 23, 1849) begins with “Thank Heaven!” and includes a reference to “. . . she prayed to the angels . . . To the queen of the angels . . .” (Mabbott notes that the Virgin Mary is known as the Queen of Angels, Mabbott, Poems, 1969, p. 461).

As has often been noted, Poe knew his Bible well, at least as literature. Forrest and Mabbott both contain long lists of Biblical quotations and, far more numerous, allusions. These occur in a few of the poems and many of the tales.

It has also been argued that, contrary to popular opinion, there is a strong sense of morality behind Poe’s works. Here one must be careful not to confuse the views of Poe’s fictional characters (including the narrators) with those of Poe himself.

The narrator who has murdered the old man in “The Tell-Tale Heart” defiantly defends himself against the idea that he is mad. Poe, however, clearly wants us to understand that the character is insane, despite — and in part because of — his protestations.

He may not feel that killing the old man was wrong, but we certainly should. That he is to be hung in the morning suggests that justice will be served.

In “The Cask of Amontillados,” Montressor carefully plans and executes a horrible revenge on the unwary Fortunato for offenses that are conspicuous for their omission from the tale.

12 Meeting Street
Meeting Street, South, and the 1st Scotch Presbyterian Church

It would be difficult to imagine what Fortunato might have done to Montressor to be deserving of such treatment and yet be completely unaware of the danger of being alone with him in an isolated place. A number of interpretations have been applied to the story.

Montressor is recounting, probably from his deathbed, his crime from fifty years ago to an unnamed person, perhaps a cleric or priest. Some detect a sense of bragging in his tone, while others claim it as a confession.

The final words, “In pace requiescat” have suggested too many readers that Fortunato has rested in peace, while Montressor has been racked with guilt. At any rate, Poe almost certainly does not expect us to identify with Montressor. If we did, where would be the horror of the tale?

If Poe’s sense of morality sometimes seems out of balance, it must be in “Hop Frog.” In this less well-known tale, the King’s harsh treatment of the young girl is clearly wrong but hardly justifies being burned alive with his eight Ministers of State. Perhaps it is not the specific act, but the habitual abuse of power that is being punished there.13 2

No survey of Poe and religion would be reasonably complete without some mention of his most remarkable and spiritual, if rather esoteric, work — the prose poem Eureka (1848).

There, Poe confidently detailed the essence of life itself, the very soul of existence. Poe felt that Eureka, first a lecture and then a small book, was the culmination of his career.

I have no desire to live since I have done ‘Eureka.’ I could accomplish nothing more (Poe to Maria Clemm, July 7, 1849, Ostrom, Letters, p. 452).

Although the subtitle of this book is “The Material and Spiritual Universe,” Poe deals much more with the nature of matter than the nature of spirit.

Poe’s implication that these are separate components, however, is a strong indication of his belief that we each have a soul which exists apart from the physical body. Kenneth Hovey makes an intriguing case that Poe, basing his views on Epicurian philosophy, thought of the soul as comprised of a sort of energy which is itself also material, as “the highest gradation of matter” (Hovey, “Poe’s Material Metaphysics of Man,” 1996, p. 356).)

14 Virginia Eliza
Virginia Eliza Clemm Poe (August 15, 1822 – January 30, 1847) was the wife of American writer Edgar Allan Poe.
The couple were first cousins and married when Virginia Clemm was 13 and Poe was 27.

Some biographers have suggested that the couple’s relationship was more like that between brother and sister than like husband and wife in that they may have never consummated their marriage.

In January 1842 she contracted tuberculosis, growing worse for five years until she died of the disease at the age of 24 in the family’s cottage outside New York City.

Along with other family members, Virginia Clemm and Edgar Allan Poe lived together off and on for several years before their marriage.

The couple often moved to accommodate Poe’s employment, living intermittently in Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York.

A few years after their wedding, Poe was involved in a substantial scandal involving Frances Sargent Osgood and Elizabeth F. Ellet.

Rumors about amorous improprieties on her husband’s part affected Virginia Poe so much that on her deathbed she claimed that Ellet had murdered her.

After her death, her body was eventually placed under the same memorial marker as her husband’s in Westminster Hall and Burying Ground in Baltimore, Maryland.

Only one image of Virginia Eliza Clemm Poe has been authenticated: a watercolor portrait painted several hours after her death.

The disease and eventual death of his wife had a substantial effect on Edgar Allan Poe, who became despondent and turned to alcohol to cope. Her struggles with illness and death are believed to have affected his poetry and prose, where dying young women appear as a frequent motif, as in “Annabel Lee”, “The Raven”, and “Ligeia”.

There are also clear statements that the act of creation from nothingness owes everything to an unnamed but very necessary Deity.

That Nature and the God of Nature are distinct, no thinking being can long doubt. By the former we imply merely the laws of the latter. But with the very idea of God, omnipotent, omniscient, we entertain, also, the idea of the infallibility of his laws. With Him there being neither Past nor Future — with Him all being Now — do we not insult him in supposing his laws so contrived as not to provide for every possible contingency? (Poe, Eureka, p. 80).

Thus far, Poe has remained fairly conventional. With his next step, however, he placed his feet on more dangerous ground:

. . . a God, self-existing and alone existing, became all things at once, through dint of his volition, while all things were thus constituted a portion of God (Poe, Eureka, p. 81).

With this statement, and others, Poe suggested that we were all gods and was astonished to discover that some misunderstood his ideas as being blasphemous.

In a lengthy letter to C. F. Hoffman, responding to a criticism in the Literary World, Poe ends with

Were these ‘misrepresentations’ . . . made for any less serious a purpose than that of branding my book as ‘impious’ and myself as a ‘pantheist,’ a ‘polytheist,’ a Pagan, or a God knows what…I would have permitted their dishonesty to pass unnoticed, through pure contempt for the boyishness — for the turn-down-shirt-collar-ness of their tone . . . (Poe to Charles Fenno Hoffman, September 20, 1848, Ostrom, Letters, p. 382).

To Poe, who understandably felt somewhat cheated in this life, the idea of one or more future lives held an obvious appeal. He used reincarnation as a theme in several stories, but there is no reason to presume that he actually believed in it as a doctrine.

His quote from “Marginalia” suggests something other than traditional reincarnation:

. . . in a future existence, we shall look upon what we think our present existence, as a dream (SLM, June 1849, reprinted in Pollin, Brevities, p. 379M231).

Certainly, Poe’s religious views were unconventional, though they may seem considerably less so today, with our dizzying array of groups preaching a virtual cornucopia of spiritual possibilities.

It would certainly have been understandable if Poe had lost confidence in a divine hand, one that directs our daily lives for purposes of our own spiritual benefit.

The sad and youthful deaths of so many loved ones (his mother, Mrs. Stanard, Frances Allan, his brother and especially the long and lingering illness of Virginia) would have tested anyone’s faith.

Poverty, illness and failure no doubt seemed his constant companions. If we can accept the testimony of Dr. John Moran, which generally must be taken with more than a little skepticism, Poe’s last words were,

Lord, help my poor soul (J. J. Moran to Maria Clemm, November 15, 1849, reprinted by J. A. Harrison).

The most realistic view is that Poe’s religious inclinations changed greatly back and forth during his lifetime, but were never seriously abandoned.

…Lost Cities of the Americas: Machu Picchu.

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