David Becomes King Over Israel – 1055 B.C. & King David

ThinkingI don’t quite get this, the men killed David’s enemies and to reward them he kills them.  Oh, wait a minute, I got it now. 

Vengeance is Yours, not theirs (Rom 12:9).

1. David the Psalmist
David — the sweet psalmist of Israel
As a young man, David played the harp (lyre) for King Saul.

So it came about whenever the evil spirit from God came to Saul, David would take the harp and play it with his hand; and Saul would be refreshed and be well, and the evil spirit would depart from him (1 Sam 16:23).

Later, David is called the “sweet psalmist of Israel.”

We have many examples in the collections of Psalms.

Now these are the last words of David.

“David the son of Jesse declares, The man who was raised on high declares, The anointed of the God of Jacob, And the sweet psalmist of Israel (2 Sam 23:1).

On traditional Mount Zion, near the traditional Tomb of David there is a statue of King David playing the harp (lyre).

David Becomes King Over Israel

All the Israelites came to David and said,

“…Behold, we are thy bone and thy flesh. 

Also in time past, when Saul was king over us, thou wast he that leddest out and broughtest in Israel: and the LORD said to thee, Thou shalt feed my people Israel, and thou shalt be a captain over Israel. 

So all the elders of Israel came to the king to Hebron; and king David made a league with them in Hebron before the LORD: and they anointed David king over Israel.  

David was thirty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned forty years “(2 Sam 5:1-4).

In Judah he reined for 7½ years and 33 in Jerusalem.

“And the king and his men went to Jerusalem unto the Jebusites…which spake unto David, saying, Except thou take away the blind and the lame, thou shalt not come in hither: thinking, David cannot come in hither. 

Nevertheless David took the strong hold of Zion: the same is the city of David. 

And David said on that day, Whosoever getteth up to the gutter, and smiteth the Jebusites, and the lame and the blind, that are hated of David’s soul, he shall be chief and captain. Wherefore they said, The blind and the lame shall not come into the house.

4. David with Goliaths head
David with the Head of Goliath, c. 1607, in the Kunsthistorisches Museum Gemäldegalerie, Vienna, is a painting by the Italian artist Caravaggio (1571–1610). Peter Robb believes it to have been acquired by the conde de Villamediana in Naples between 1611 and 1617, as Giovanni Bellori records Villamediana as having returned to Spain with a half-figure of David by Caravaggio.
Caravaggio also treated this subject in a work currently in the Galleria Borghese, Rome, and in an early work dated c. 1600 in the Prado in Madrid.

So David dwelt in the fort, and called it the city of David.  And David built roundabout from Millo and inward. 

And David went on, and grew great, and the LORD God of hosts was with him. 

And Hiram king of Tyre sent messengers to David, and cedar trees, and carpenters, and masons: and they built David a house” (2 Sam 5:6-11).

David got couple more concubines from Jerusalem and they had children: Shammua, Shobab, Nathan, Solomon, Ibhar, Elishua, Nepheg, Japhia, Elishama, Eliada, and Eliphet.

When the Philistines heard that David was anointed king they were not happy about it and came looking for him. 

So David asked God if he should go up to the Philistines?  And He said,

Go up: for I will doubtless deliver the Philistines into thine hand (2 Sam 5:19).  

And David smote them and burned all their images, so he called the place Baal-perazim.

The Philistines returned and spread themselves in the valley of Rephaim, and David again turned to God,

2. David Sculpture
David is a Renaissance sculpture sculpted by Michelangelo from 1501 to 1504.
The 5.17 meter (17 ft) marble statue portrays the biblical King David.

Unlike previous depictions of David which portray the hero after his victory over Goliath, Michelangelo chose to represent David before the fight contemplating the battle yet to come.

It came to symbolize the defense of civil liberties embodied in the Florentine Republic, an independent city state threatened on all sides by more powerful rival states and by the hegemony of the Medici themselves.

This interpretation was also encouraged by the original setting of the sculpture outside the Palazzo della Signoria, the seat of civic government in Florence.

The completed sculpture was unveiled on 8 September 1504.

“…He said, Thou shalt not go up; but fetch a compass behind them, and come upon them over against the mulberry trees. 

And let it be, when thou hearest the sound of a going in the tops of the mulberry trees, that then thou shalt bestir thyself: for then shall the LORD go out before thee, to smite the host of the Philistines.

And David did so, as the LORD had commanded him; and smote the Philistines from Geba until thou come to Gazer” (2 Sam 5:23-25).

David chose 30,000 men to go to get the Ark of God.  They set it on a cart and brought it out of the house of Abinadab that was in Gibeah.  

His sons, Uzzah and Ahio drave the cart.  As they travelled David and all the Israelites played instruments, like harps, psalteries, timbrels, cornets, and cymbals.

“And when they came to Nachon’s threshing floor, Uzzah put forth his hand to the ark of God, and took hold of it; for the oxen shook it. 

And the anger of the LORD was kindled against Uzzah; and God smote him there for his error; and there he died by the ark of God. 

And David was displeased, because the LORD had made a breach upon Uzzah: and he called the name of the place Perez-uzzah to this day.  And David was afraid of the LORD that day, and said, How shall the ark of the LORD come to me?”  (2 Sam 6:6-9).

So David wouldn’t move the Ark into the city of David, but put it inside of Obed-edom’s house, and it stayed there for three months, and God blessed Obed-edom and his household.  When David found out he was pleased he moved it to the city of David.

“And as the ark of the Lord came into the city of David, Michal Saul’s daughter looked through a window, and saw king David leaping and dancing before the Lord; and she despised him in her heart” (2 Sam 6:16).

Once they had the Ark in its place they again offered burnt and peace offerings and he blessed the people in the name of the Lord.  And gave everyone a cake of bread, a good piece of flesh, and a flagon of wine.

“Then David returned to bless his household. And Michal the daughter of Saul came out to meet David, and said, How glorious was the king of Israel today, who uncovered himself today in the eyes of the handmaids of his servants, as one of the vain fellows shamelessly uncovereth himself!

And David said unto Michal, It was before the LORD, which chose me before thy father, and before all his house, to appoint me ruler over the people of the LORD, over Israel: therefore will I play before the LORD. 

And I will yet be more vile than thus, and will be base in mine own sight: and of the maidservants which thou hast spoken of, of them shall I be had in honor. 

Therefore Michal the daughter of Saul had no child unto the day of her death” (2 Sam 6:20-23).

King David

5. tatue of King David by Nicolas Cordie
Statue of King David by Nicolas Cordier in the Borghese Chapel of the Basilica di Santa Maria.

The death of Saul about 1000 B.C. threatened to end Israel’s experiment with a monarchy.  The tribes were no better off with a king than they had been under the judges. 

Still plagued by the Philistines and surrounded by other hostile peoples, Israel could easily have been destroyed or simply absorbed among     the many peoples that formed the melting pot of Palestine.

Within the space of two generations, King David and King Solomon vanquished Israel’s foes and created a kingdom whose influence spanned from the Sinai Desert to the Euphrates River.   Under them, Israel played a major political and economic role in the affairs of the Near East. 

David faced serious opposition to his rule after the death of Saul in 1000 B.C.  Although the tribal elders of Judah proclaimed David king at Hebron, the northern tribes rallied around Saul’s son Ish-bosheth, who escaped the massacre on Mount Gilboa.

Backed by Abner, Saul’s powerful commander of troops, Ish-bosheth established a capital at Mahanaim in the Transjordan from which he opposed the leadership of David (2 Sam. 2:1-11).  Abner clearly was the greater threat since he had the loyalty of his army to use as a tool for furthering his ambitions. 

The Wars of David

Throughout his reign David fought a series of both defensive and offensive wars against surrounding peoples who threatened his kingdom.  In the process, not only did more land allotted to the tribes come into the possession of Israel, but David extended Jerusalem’s influence and control beyond Palestine into Syria.  

To accomplish this considerable feat, David employed a professional army composed of mercenaries drawn from various backgrounds, including Hittites, Philistines, and Ammonites, as well as Israelites.

The “Thirty,” an inner circle of fighting men of unquestioned loyalty to David, spearheaded his elite troops (2 Sam 23:8-39).

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