Eve & Marriage

I’ve heard stories about Adam and Eve.  But where did she come from?  Did You make her too?

“And the LORD God said, “It is not good that the man should be alone, I will make him a help meet for him”(Gen 2:18).

“And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof; and the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man made he a woman and brought her unto the man.

And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman because she was taken out of Man.

Marriage in ancient Rome (conubium) was a strictly monogamous institution: a Roman citizen by law could have only one spouse at a time. … These three benefits seem to define the purpose of marriage in ancient Rome. The word matrimonium, the root for the English word “matrimony”, defines the institution’s main function.

Therefore shall a man leave his father and mother, and shall cleave unto his wife and they shall be one flesh” (Gen 2:21-25).

Note: Eve was not named until after the fall and before she gave birth, until then she had only been called woman.  And Adam called his wife’s name Eve because she was the mother of all living (Gen 3:20).

“I would think since You made Adam first he would be in charge.  But then again they were married.  How is marriage supposed to be, do You have any rules?”

“Wives, submit yourselves unto your own husbands, as unto the Lord. 

For the husband is the head of the wife, even as Christ is the head of the church: and he is the savior of the body. 

Therefore, as the church is subject unto Christ, so let the wives be to their husbands in everything” (Eph 5:22-24).

“Wives, submit yourselves unto your own husbands, as it is fit in the Lord” (Col 3:18).

“Likewise, ye wives be in subjection to your own husbands; that if any obey not the word they also may without the word be won by the conversation of the wives” (1 Pet 3:1).

Women’s Rights
Women had little official political power in Rome. They were not allowed to vote or hold political office. In general, they were not accepted into political debate or other areas of public life.
Unofficially, some women in Rome held power through their husbands or sons. Wives of senators, and even the emperors, advised their husbands and often had a significant influence on the government and the workings of Rome.
Women weren’t completely without rights, however. They could own property and run businesses. Some women became very wealthy and held power through their wealth.
Once a woman was married she had even less rights. The husband had all the legal rights when it came to the children. In the early years of Rome, the wife was actually considered the property of the husband. This changed around the time Rome became an empire in 27 BC.

“Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the church, and gave himself for it;

That he might sanctify and cleanse it with the washing of water by the word,

That he might present it to himself a glorious church, not having spot, or wrinkle, or any such thing; but that it should be holy and without blemish” (Eph 5:25-27).

“Husbands, love your wives, and not bitter against them” (Col 3:19).

“Likewise, ye husbands, dwell with them according to knowledge, giving honor unto the wife, as unto the weaker vessel, and as being heirs together of the grace of life; that your prayers be not hindered” (1 Pet 3:7).

The church is not a religion, nor is it Jesus Christ, remember, He is the head of the church.  The church is the holiness and righteousness of God. 

A husbands and wives are to respect one another in love and fairness, to treat each other as they would treat themselves. 

In other words, if you are unable to treat each other equally then your love for Jesus is lacking.

To see more go to: Marriage in Ancient Rome, Marriage and Divorce in Ancient Israel, and How Marriage Has Changed Over Centuries.

The Garden of Eden

After You made the man did you build him a house so he can stay out of the rain, and a grocery store so he wouldn’t starve to death?

“And the LORD God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed.

And out of the ground made the LORD God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil.

And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads” (Gen 2:8-10).

“And the LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it.

And the LORD God commanded man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat:

But of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die” (Gen 2:15-17).

Note: It did not rain at this time, Noah was the first person to ever see rain, which was more than 1,500 years later:

“And every plant of the field before it was in the earth, and every herb of the field before it grew: for the LORD God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was not a man to till the ground. 

But there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the ground” (Gen 2:5-6).

 The Garden of Eden

Genesis describes a garden God provided for Adam and Eve that lay to the east in Eden.

“And the Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed” (Gen 2:8). 

The site of the mythical ancient “garden of Eden” has long held fascination, particularly since it is referred to beyond the Genesis source.
Now, as Tom Knox writes, a remarkable archaeological site in eastern Turkey may support earlier theories on Eden’s location and how a semi-religious meeting place dating to 13,000 BC may have led to the stories of “God’s Garden” or “Paradise.”
Gobekli Tepe in the Plains of Harran
Knox, whose book The Genesis Secret explores the connections to Gobekli Tepe, states that the hundreds of T-shaped megaliths covered with images of different animals may be the most important discovery in centuries.
The carbon dating makes Gobekli “the oldest such site in the world, by a mind-numbing margin.”
At the time early man inhabited the site, it was a place filled with “herds of game, rivers of fish, and flocks of wildfowl; lush green meadows were ringed by woods and wild orchards.”
In a bizarre twist, the site was covered over in 8,000 BC.
George Frederick Wright states that to be in accordance with all existing ancient literature about Eden, its location had to be “adapted to the production of fruit trees and animals capable of domestication…”
The Genesis Eden was well-watered by the four branches of rivers Josephus identified as the Ganges, Tigris, Eurphrates, and Nile.
The prophet Ezekiel (31.16) refers to the “well-watered trees of Eden.”
Wright examined the various theories as to Eden’s possible location and concludes that the greatest amount of evidences places it in eastern Turkey – Wrights conclusions came at the early part of the 20th century, long before Gobekli Tepe was discovered.
The very name “Eden” was derived from an Assyrian term, “idinu,” which has been traced to the Accadian (Sumerian) “edin.”
Finally, tablets found at the site of the ancient city of Eridu (Mesopotamia) contain images of a sacred tree, a “tree of life,” guarded by two spirits at either end.

The term Eden may come from the Hebrew word for “delight”; alternatively the word may have derived from a Babylonian word edine meaning “plain,” or perhaps “Eden” is related to a West Semitic word suggesting a well-watered place.

The Garden of Eden (Gen 2:15), was a place of the life-giving water and fertile land where God abundantly provided for Adam and Eve.  A river flowed forth from the Garden that separated into four rivers: the Pishon, the Gihon, the Tigris, and the Euphrates. 

The last two rivers are well known: they originate in the Armenian mountains of eastern Turkey and flow through Mesopotamia to the Persian Gulf.

The geographical details – a river that separates into four headwaters – cannot be easily matched with the present geography of the Middle East.  Several proposed locations for the Garden of Eden have been offered. 

One idea locates it in the Armenian Mountains near the headwater of the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers.  In this scenario Pishon and Gihon might be identified with other rivers arising in this mountainous region.

A second proposal places the Garden in southern Mesopotamia.  If the name Eden comes from the Babylonian word for “plain,” this idea gains strength.  Furthermore, from the vantage point of Canaan, southern Mesopotamia lies east. 

The Tigris and Euphrates flow though Mesopotamia.  Perhaps the Gihon and Pishon refer to rivers flowing out of the southern Zagros Mountains into the plain.  An alternative suggestion is that two of the numerous irrigation canals are the Pishon and Gihon.

A third view takes a broader approach, suggesting that the description locates the Garden only generally in the Ancient Near East. 

The Name Cush suggests to some scholars that the two unidentified rivers are the White and Blue Niles of Africa.  Since the location of the Tigris and Euphrates are known this view locates the Garden generally in the Near East, the cradle of ancient civilizations.

I think the Garden of Eden represents Heaven because God made Adam and Eve to live forever in peace and tranquility, as He says it will be when Jesus returns:

And I heard a great voice out of heaven saying, Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and he will dwell with them, and they shall be his people, and God himself shall be with them, and be their God.

And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes; and there shall be no more death, neither sorrow, nor crying, neither shall there be any more pain: for the former things are passed away.

And he that sat upon the throne said, Behold, I make all things new.  And he said unto me, Write: for these words are true and faithful.

The Nile is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world.
It is 6,853 km (4,258 miles) long. The Nile is an “international” river as its water resources are shared by eleven countries, namely, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Sudan, Sudan and Egypt.
In particular, the Nile is the primary water source of Egypt and the northern Sudan.
The Nile has two major tributaries, the White Nile and Blue Nile.
The White Nile is considered to be the headwaters and primary stream of the Nile itself.
The Blue Nile, however, is the source of most of the water and fertile soil.
The White Nile is longer and rises in the Great Lakes region of central Africa, with the most distant source still undetermined but located in either Rwanda or Burundi.
It flows north through Tanzania, Lake Victoria, Uganda and South Sudan.
The Blue Nile begins at Lake Tana in Ethiopia and flows into Sudan from the southeast.
The two rivers meet near the Sudanese capital of Khartoum.
The northern section of the river flows almost entirely through desert, from Sudan into Egypt, a country whose civilization has depended on the river since ancient times.
Most of the population and cities of Egypt lie along those parts of the Nile valley north of Aswan, and nearly all the cultural and historical sites of Ancient Egypt are found along riverbanks.
The Nile ends in a large delta that empties into the Mediterranean Sea.

And he [Jesus] said unto me, It is done.  I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end.  I will give unto him that is athirst of the fountain of the water of life freely.

He that overcometh shall inherit all things; and I will be his God, and he shall be my son.

But the fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and whoremongers, and sorcerers, and idolaters, and all liars, shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone: which is the second death (Rev 21:3-8).

To my understanding, and this is only my own hypothesis, this will not be Heaven, but we’ll live with Jesus here for 1,000 years.  After those 1,000 years then Jesus will release Satan for a short time, and then lock him in the Lake of Fire forever:

“And I saw an angel come down from heaven, having the key of the bottomless pit and a great chain in his hand.

And he laid hold on the dragon, that old serpent, which is the Devil, and Satan, and bound him a thousand years.

And cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a seal upon him, that he should deceive the nations no more, till the thousand years should be fulfilled: and after that he must be loosed a little season.

And I saw the souls of them that were beheaded for the witness of Jesus, and for the word of God, and which had not worshipped the beast, neither his image, neither had received his mark upon their foreheads, or in their hands; and they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years.

But the rest of the dead lived not again until the thousand years were finished. This is the first resurrection.

Blessed and holy is he that hath part in the first resurrection: on such the second death hath no power, but they shall be priests of God and of Christ, and shall reign with him a thousand years.

The Deepest Hole In The World
The bottomless pit has been a thing of mystery and curiosity for hundreds of years.
Could such a pit exist? Of course if one does exists, where?
The air of mystery that could surround a hole that seemingly was endless is beyond compare, especially to some people.
There are a few stories floating out there in the world that may be reality or just fanciful legend.
I guess it really depends what you want to believe.
The first story comes from Russia and it was called the “Well to Hell”.
It was a hole that was drilled so deep that it broke through to the underworld of Hell itself.
It is said that a nine mile deep hole was dug and then broke through to an extremely hot cavity of the earth.
A heat resistant microphone was lowered down into this cavity of the earth and they could hear the flames and screams of those people being eternally torture for the horrible acts they had committed while living.
Is this true?
Is there such a deep hole in Russia?
Is it that extremely hot?
Are the screams of the dammed heard?
Well believe it or not some of this story is true, in fact Russia has a deep hole about nine miles located in the Kola Peninsula and not Siberia as the story would have us believe.
The hole is in fact nearly eight miles deep and the temperatures have reached 360 degrees Fahrenheit which makes drilling any further extremely expensive.
Now time for the screams of the damned part of this story, when drilling they did happen to stumble upon geological anomalies but there were definitely no screams if the damned recorded.
So a simple story of great engineering in the aspect of drilling a hole was taken to a legend of supernatural lore.
This could be true, but I don’t believe it.
I believe that there is a Bottomless Pit because God said so, but I don’t believe it exists on earth.

And when the thousand years are expired, Satan shall be loosed out of his prison,

And shall go out to deceive the nations which are in the four quarters of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them together to battle: the number of whom is as the sand of the sea.

And they went up on the breadth of the earth, and compassed the camp of the saints about, and the beloved city: and fire came down from God out of heaven, and devoured them.

And the devil that deceived them was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, where the beast and the false prophet are, and shall be tormented day and night for ever and ever.

And I saw a great white throne, and him that sat on it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away; and there was found no place for them.

And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God; and the books were opened: and another book was opened, which is the book of life: and the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the books, according to their works.

And the sea gave up the dead which were in it; and death and hell delivered up the dead which were in them: and they were judged every man according to their works.

And death and hell were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death.

And whosoever was not found written in the book of life was cast into the lake of fire” (Rev 20:1-15).

“And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them: and I saw the souls of them that were beheaded for the witness of Jesus, and for the word of God, and which had not worshipped the beast, neither his image, neither had received his mark upon their foreheads, or in their hands; and they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years.

But the rest of the dead lived not again until the thousand years were finished.  This is the first resurrection. 

Blessed and holy is he that hath part in the first resurrection: on such the second death hath no power, but they shall be priests of God and of Christ, and shall reign with him a thousand years. 

And when the thousand years are expired, Satan shall be loosed out of his prison, 

And shall go out to deceive the nations which are in the four quarters of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them together to battle: the number of whom is as the sand of the sea. 

And they went up on the breadth of the earth, and compassed the camp of the saints about, and the beloved city: and fire came down from God out of heaven, and devoured them. 

And the devil that deceived them was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, where the beast and the false prophet are, and shall be tormented day and night forever and ever. 

And I saw a great white throne, and him that sat on it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away; and there was found no place for them. 

And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God; and the books were opened: and another book was opened, which is the book of life: and the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the books, according to their works. 

And the sea gave up the dead which were in it; and death and hell delivered up the dead which were in them: and they were judged every man according to their works. 

And death and hell were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death. 

And whosoever was not found written in the book of life was cast into the lake of fire” (Rev 1-15).

Why God is going to let the devil out again is beyond me.  I don’t know for certain, but I can think of two possible reasons:

1) For those that are walking a thin line as is, because as you will see shortly God will not allow those that are only half or partially righteous:

“For if we sin willfully after that we have received the knowledge of the truth, there remaineth no more sacrifice for sins,

But a certain fearful looking for of judgment and fiery indignation, which shall devour the adversaries” (Heb 10:26-27).

“For it is impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost. 

And have tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the world to come, 

if they shall fall away, to renew them again unto repentance; seeing they crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh, and put him to an open shame” (Heb 6:4-6).

“Not everyone that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in heaven. 

Many will say to me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in thy name?  And in thy name have cast out devils?  And in thy name done many wonderful works? 

And then will I profess unto them, I never knew you: depart from me, ye that work iniquity” (Matt 7:21-22).

Is Hell in the Center of the Earth?
Scientists have yet to directly measure the temperature of the Earth’s inner core, but most estimates put it at somewhere between 9,000 and 11,000 degrees Fahrenheit (5,000 and 6,000 degrees Celsius).


2) For those that, for some stupid reason, would prefer to spend eternity with the devil in the Lake of Fire, rather than in Heaven with Jesus.

Then we’ll live forever with Jesus in the new Jerusalem:

“And I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away; and there was no more sea.

And I John saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband” (Rev 21:1-2). 

“And there came unto me one of the seven angels which had the seven vials full of the seven last plagues, and talked with me, saying, Come hither, I will shew thee the bride, the Lamb’s wife. 

And he carried me away in the spirit to a great and high mountain, and shewed me that great city, the holy Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God. 

Having the glory of God: and her light was like unto a stone most precious, even like a jasper stone, clear as crystal; 

And had a wall great and high, and had twelve gates, and at the gates twelve angels, and names written thereon, which are the names of the twelve tribes of the children of Israel: 

On the east three gates; on the north three gates; on the south three gates; and on the west three gates. 

And the wall of the city had twelve foundations, and in them the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb. 

And he that talked with me had a golden reed to measure the city, and the gates thereof, and the wall thereof. 

And the city lieth foursquare, and the length is as large as the breadth: and he measured the city with the reed, twelve thousand furlongs. The length and the breadth and the height of it are equal. 

And he measured the wall thereof, an hundred and forty and four cubits, according to the measure of a man, that is, of the angel. 

And the building of the wall of it was of jasper: and the city was pure gold, like unto clear glass. 

And the foundations of the wall of the city were garnished with all manner of precious stones. The first foundation was jasper; the second, sapphire; the third, a chalcedony; the fourth, an emerald; 

The fifth, sardonyx; the sixth, sardius; the seventh, chrysolite; the eighth, beryl; the ninth, a topaz; the tenth, a chrysoprasus; the eleventh, a jacinth; the twelfth, an amethyst. 

Are Heaven and Hell Real Places?
The Bible describes heaven and hell as real places. Humans have souls and when we die, we go either to heaven or hell, where we will spend eternity. Our physical bodies die on earth but our souls live forever.
In broad terms heaven is a reward for serving the living God whereas hell is a place of punishment for rejecting God and his son Jesus. Heaven is described as the most amazing place imaginable whereas hell is described as a place of unimaginable torment.
Is Hell Real?
God has given everyone the opportunity to choose their eternal destination and has even made it possible for us to escape the eternal torment of hell.
Because God created us with free will, we are expected to decide for ourselves whether we choose eternal spiritual life or eternal spiritual death.

And the twelve gates were twelve pearls; every several gate was of one pearl: and the street of the city was pure gold, as it were transparent glass. 

And I saw no temple therein: for the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are the temple of it. 

And the city had no need of the sun, neither of the moon, to shine in it: for the glory of God did lighten it, and the Lamb is the light thereof. 

And the nations of them which are saved shall walk in the light of it: and the kings of the earth do bring their glory and honor into it. 

And the gates of it shall not be shut at all by day: for there shall be no night there. 

And they shall bring the glory and honor of the nations into it. 

And there shall in no wise enter into it anything that defileth, neither whatsoever worketh abomination, or maketh a lie: but they which are written in the Lamb’s book of life” (Rev 21:9-27).

“And he shewed me a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb.

In the midst of the street of it, and on either side of the river, was there the tree of life, which bare twelve manner of fruits, and yielded her fruit every month: and the leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations.

And there shall be no more curse: but the throne of God and of the Lamb shall be in it; and his servants shall serve him” (Rev 22:1-3).

“And he saith unto me, Seal not the sayings of the prophecy of this book: for the time is at hand. 

He that is unjust, let him be unjust still: and he which is filthy, let him be filthy still: and he that is righteous, let him be righteous still: and he that is holy, let him be holy still. 

And, behold, I come quickly; and my reward is with me, to give every man according as his work shall be. 

I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last. 

Blessed are they that do his commandments, that they may have right to the tree of life, and may enter in through the gates into the city. 

For without are dogs, and sorcerers, and whoremongers, and murderers, and idolaters, and whosoever loveth and maketh a lie. 

I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things in the churches.  I am the root and the offspring of David, and the bright and morning star. 

And the Spirit and the bride say, Come.  And let him that heareth say, Come.  And let him that is athirst come.  And whosoever will, let him take the water of life freely. 

For I testify unto every man that heareth the words of the prophecy of this book, If any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto him the plagues that are written in this book: 

And if any man shall take away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part out of the book of life, and out of the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book. 

He which testifieth these things saith, Surely I come quickly.  Amen.  Even so, come, Lord Jesus. 

The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen” (Rev 22:10-21).

Only God has that mind, and He says that He has already created new things for us that go to Heaven:

“But as it is written, Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that love him” (1 Cor 2:9). 

“For since the beginning of the world men have not heard, nor perceived by the ear, neither hath the eye seen, O God, beside thee, what he hath prepared for him that waiteth for him” (Is 64:4).

Also, we won’t even remember this life.

For, behold, I create new heavens and a new earth: and the former shall not be remembered, nor come into mind.

But be ye glad and rejoice forever in that which I create: for, behold, I create Jerusalem a rejoicing, and her people a joy (Is 65:17-18).

Man – Day 6, Part 2

When You decided to make us did You just say something like, ‘Let the Earth make people after their kind?

“And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth” (Gen 1:26).

“And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul” (Gen 2:7).

Note: God created man with His own hands, but everything else He spoke into creation.  So much for Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution and Natural Selection.

“The Fall and Expulsion from Garden of Eden” depiction of Adam and Eve in the Sistine Chapel by Michelangelo. Photo courtesy of Creative Commons/Sebastian Bergmann

The Animals and Creeping Things – Day 6, Part 1 & Prehistoric Creatures, Part 3 of 3

How about the animals and people: Did You zap them into existence with words too?

“And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping things, and beast of the earth after his kind.  And it was so.

And God made the beast of the earth after his kind and cattle after their kind, and everything that creepeth upon the earth after his kind.  And God saw that it was good” (Gen 1:24-25).

Prehistoric Creatures, Part 3 of 3
10 Terrifying Prehistoric Relatives
of Normal Animals

Today, man is the dominant predator on the planet. Yet we have occupied this position for a relatively short period of time—the earliest known man, Homo habilis, first appeared around 2.3 million years ago.

Although we dominate the animals of today, many of these animals have extinct relatives that were a lot larger and more vicious than what we’re familiar with. These animal ancestors look like creatures straight out of our worst nightmares.

The frightening aspect is that if mankind vanishes—or merely loses its dominance—these creatures, or something like them, could potentially return again to existence.



Today, sloths are tree-climbing, slow, and non-threatening animals that reside in the Amazon. Their ancestors were the complete opposite. During the Pliocene era, Megatherium was a giant ground sloth found in South America; it weighed up to four tons and was twenty feet (6m) in length from head to tail.

Although it primarily moved on four legs, footprints show that it was capable of being bipedal, in order to reach leaves from the tallest trees. It was the size of a modern day elephant, and still wasn’t the largest animal in its habitat!

Archeologists theorize that Megatherium was a scavenger, and would steal dead carcasses from other carnivores. Megatherium was also one of the last giant Ice Age mammals to disappear.

Their remains appear in the fossil record as recently as the Holocene, the period that saw the rise of mankind. This makes man the most likely culprit in the extinction of Megatherium.


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When we think of a giant ape we generally think of the fictional King Kong—but colossal apes really did exist, long ago.

Gigantopithecus was an ape that existed from roughly nine million to a hundred thousand years ago—placing it in the same time period as several hominid species.

The fossil record suggests that individuals of the species Gigantopithecus were the largest apes to ever exist, standing at almost ten feet (3m) tall, and weighing twelve hundred pounds (540kg). S

cientists have not been able to determine the cause of extinction for this large ape. However, some crypto-zoologists theorize that “sightings” of Big Foot and Yeti may relate to a lost generation of gigantopithecus.

Armored Fish

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Dunkleosteus was the largest of the prehistoric fish Placodermi. Its head and thorax were covered by articulated armored plates. Instead of teeth, these fish possessed two pairs of sharp bony plates, which formed a beak-like structure.

Dunkleosteus likely attacked other related placoderms that had the same kind of bony plates for protection; their jaws had enough driving power to cut and break through armored prey.

One of the largest known specimens found was thirty-three feet (10m) long and weighed four tons—making it one fish that you would not want to catch on a reel and rod!

This fish was anything but picky with its food; it ate fish, sharks and even its own kind.

But it seems to have suffered from indigestion, as its fossils are often associated with regurgitated, semi-digested remains of fish. Scientists at the University of Chicago concluded that dunkleosteus had the second most powerful bite of any fish.

These giant armored fish became extinct during the transition from Devonian to the Carboniferous periods.

Terror Bird

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Most flightless birds today—consider the ostrich or the penguin, for example—are harmless to human beings; however, there was once a flightless bird that terrorized the earth.

Phorusrhacidae, also known as “terror birds,” were a species of carnivorous and flightless birds that were the largest species of predators in South America, between sixty-two million and two million years ago.

They were roughly three to ten feet (1-3m) tall. The terror bird’s prey of choice were small mammals . . . and, incidentally, horses. They used their massive beaks to kill in two ways; by picking up small prey and slamming it to the ground, or by precision strikes on critical body parts.

Although archeologists have not yet fully determined the reason this species went extinct, the last of its fossils appear around the same time as the first humans.6

Haast’s Eagle


Birds of prey have always left an imprint on the human psyche; luckily, we are far bigger than the largest eagle. That said, birds of prey that were large enough to hunt a human meal once existed.

The Haast’s eagle once lived on the South Island of New Zealand, and was the largest eagle known to exist, weighing up to thirty-six pounds (16.5kg) with a ten-foot (3m) wingspan.

Its prey consisted of the moa, three-hundred-pound flightless birds unable to defend themselves from the striking force and speed of these eagles, which reached speeds of up to fifty miles (8km) per hour.

Legends from early settlers and native Maori had it that these eagles could pick up and devour small children.

But early human settlers in New Zealand preyed heavily on large flightless birds, including all moa species—eventually hunting them to extinction.

The loss of its natural prey caused the Haast’s eagle to become extinct around fourteen hundred years ago, when its natural food source was depleted.

Giant Ripper Lizard


Today, the Komodo dragon is a fearsome reptile and the largest lizard on the planet—but its would have been dwarfed by its ancient ancestors. Themegalania, also known as the “Giant Ripper Lizard”, was a very large monitor lizard.

The exact proportions of this creature have been debated, but the most recent research revealed that the megalania’s length was around twenty-three feet (7m), and that it weighed approximately thirteen to fourteen hundred pounds (600-620kg), making it the largest terrestrial lizard known to have existed.

Its diet consisted of marsupials, such as giant kangaroos and wombats. Megalania belongs to the clade toxicofera, possessing toxin-secreting oral glands—making this lizard the largest venomous vertebrate known to have existed.

Although we couldn’t imagine a lizard of this size roaming in the Outback, the first Aboriginal settlers of Australia may have encountered living megalanias. The species most likely went extinct when early settlers hunted the megalania’s food sources.

Short-faced Bear


Bears are some of the largest mammals on Earth, with the polar bear even holding the title for the largest of all carnivores on land. Arctodus—also known as the short-faced bear—lived in North America during the Pleistocene.  

The short-faced bear weighed about one ton (900kg), and when standing on its hind legs it reached a height of fifteen feet (4.6m), making the short-faced bear the largest mammalian predator that ever existed.

Although the short-faced bear was a very large carnivore, archeologists have discovered that it was actually a scavenger. Being a scavenger, however, was not at all a bad thing—especially when you’re fighting saber-tooth cats and wolves for a meal.

Like many other large animals of the Pleistocene, the short-faced bear lost much of its food source with the arrival of humans.


Deinosuchus And Albertosaurus

Modern-day crocodiles are living relics of the dinosaurs—but there was a time when crocodiles hunted and ate said dinosaurs. 

Deinosuchus is an extinct species related to alligators and crocodiles, which lived during the Cretaceous eriod. The name deinosuchus translates to “terrible crocodile” in Greek.

This crocodile was far larger than any modern version, measuring up to thirty-nine feet (12m) and weighting almost ten tons.

In its overall appearance, it was fairly similar to its smaller relatives, with large robust teeth built for crushing, and a back covered with armored bone plates.

Deinosuchus’ main prey were large dinosaurs (how many can make thatclaim?) in addition to sea turtles, fish and other hapless victims.

Potential proof of the danger of deinosuchus comes from the fossils of an albertosaurus.

These specimens bore tooth marks from both deinosuchus and Tyrannosaurus Rex, which means that there is a great chance these two fierce predators once engaged in colossal battles.



No creature invokes more fear in the human psyche than snakes. Today the largest snake is the Reticulated Python, with an average growth of twenty-three feet (7m).

In 2009, archeologists made a shocking discovery in Columbia; by comparing shapes and sizes of its fossilized vertebrae to those of modern snakes, they estimated that the ancient snakes, titanoboa, reached a maximum length of forty to fifty feet (12-15m) and weighed up to 2,500 pounds—making it the largest snake to ever slide around the planet.

Because it’s a recent discovery, little is known about titanoboa; what is known is that a fifty-foot snake would scare the daylights out of anybody, phobia or not.



Before 1975, most humans’ animal phobias came primarily from snakes and spiders. That all changed when the film Jaws was released; the film’s antagonist was a (fake) great white shark, which ended up scaring many people away from entering the ocean.

Today, the largest great white sharks are usually twenty feet (6m) in length and weigh five thousand pounds (2,275kg). However, there was once a shark that was double the size of the largest modern great white sharks.

Megaladon—meaning “big tooth”—was a shark that lived approximately twenty-eight to 1.5 million years ago. Everything about the megaladon was mega: its teeth were 7.1 inches (18cm); and fossil remains suggest that this giant shark reached a maximum length of 52-67 feet (16-20m).

While today great white sharks prey on seals, the megaladon’s meal of choice was whales. Scientists hypothesize that the species went extinct due to oceanic cooling, sea level drops, and a decline in food supply.

If the megaladon were still alive, there is a great chance that man would have been a landlocked species.

Still, in the giant oceans there may be a titanic great white shark lurking in the abyss—so there’s always a chance that something like the megaladon could return to the world.

God Speaks and Things Happen & Prehistoric Creatures, Part 2 of 3

“So when You say something things happen.  Is that correct?”

By the word of the LORD were the heavens made and all the host of them by the breath of his mouth.  He gathereth the waters of the sea together as a heap.  He layeth up the depth in storehouses” (Ps 33:6-7).

“Let them praise the name of the LORD: for he commanded, and they were created” (Ps 148:5).

“Let all the earth fear the LORD: Let all the inhabitants of the world stand in awe of him.  For he spake, and it was done; he commanded, and it stood fast” (33:8-9).

“Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear” (Heb 11:3).

“For this they willingly are ignorant of, that by the word of God the heavens were of old, and the earth standing out of the water and in the water” (2 Pet 3:5).

“So shall my word be that goeth forth out of   my mouth: it shall not return unto me void, but it shall accomplish that which I please, and it shall prosper in the thing whereto I sent it” (Is 55:11).

25 Strangest Prehistoric Creatures


 The Greek name for a little bird, also translated as “early wing” or “first bird,” it supposedly existed during the Jurassic Period. A fossilized feather was discovered in 1861 in Solnhofen, Germany, where high-quality lime deposits were mined for over a century.


This dinosaur is a bit of any enigma for paleontologists as the only known evidence for its existence are a handful of fossil remains, including two forelimbs and some bits of vertebrae.

The fossilized remains were found on July 9, 1965 in Mongolia and were given the name Deinocheirus or “terrible hands.”


Also called a “hoe tusker” or “terrible beast,” the remains of these prehistoric mammals that resemble modern-day elephants were discovered at major hominid excavation sites at Lake Turkana in Kenya.


Its name means “two-form tooth” which is the result of having two distinct types of teeth in its jaw. These creatures supposedly had great eyesight and formidable claws to hunt fish, squid or lizards.


Also called “Dunkle’s Bone,” this was one of the largest armored jaw fishes to have ever roamed the Earth. Considered one of the fiercest predators in the ocean it could measure up to 10 meters and weighed 3.6 tons.


Elasmosaur, which means “thin plate,” could have been around 30 feet in height and 46 feet in length. Most of its length was in its neck, which was roughly 25 feet long, or 4 times larger than the neck of a giraffe.

When it was first reconstructed, scientists made the mistake of putting its head on the wrong end due to its funny shape.


Though Archaopteryx was credited as the “first bird,” Epidendrosaurus or “lizard of the tree” was the first reptile to be closer to a bird than a dinosaur.

It was about six inches long and used its long arms and clawed hands to pry on insects from tree bark.


A small-feathered dinosaur that existed once in the Inner Mongolia region of China, Epidexipteryx or “display feather” is the earliest known representation of ornamental feathers in the fossil record.


A relative of modern arthropods, Hallucigenia is one of the strangest creatures in the fossil record. Less than 3 millimeters long, it has a bulbous round head connected to its cylindrical trunk.

Though it was previously thought that it stood on its spines, it was later discovered that the tentacles are actually feet, making the Hallucigenia the ancestor of today’s velvet worms.


Also known as “spiral saw,” this shark-like cartilaginous fish first arose in the oceans of the late Carboniferous era. However, the only surviving evidence of its existence was a tight curled-up coil of triangular teeth.

This bizarre structure was attached to the bottom part of its jaw, though how it was used still remains a mystery today. Some speculations are that it was used to grind shells, while others believed that the coil could be unfurled like a whip to spear unfortunate prey.


This extinct species of sea scorpions had an estimated length of 2.5 meters, one of the largest arthropods ever discovered. Although it was dubbed a “sea scorpion,” it supposedly lived in the freshwater rivers and lakes of present day Germany.


Related to the modern pacarana and very closely resembling a capybara, these creatures were the biggest rodents on the planet weighing up to 1000kg.


Also known as “smooth-sided tooth,” this marine predator lived on a diet of fish, squid, and other sea reptiles. Bigger than a sperm whale, its skull was 16 ft or nearly 1/4 of its body.


Known as the first archosaur to have been able to glide or parachute, its famous for the elongated pair of scales along its back, with the anterior ones resembling feathers.


Sometimes called the giant ripper lizard, Megalania fed on a diet of mammals, snakes, other reptiles, and birds. The nearest modern day relative is the Komodo dragon that inhabits the Flores Islands in Indonesia.


Microraptor or “one who seizes” was a very small dinosaur and paleontologists have long debated the use of its four wings – whether they were for parachuting from trees or taking off from the ground.


An ancient genus of the Pterosaur, its fossils were found in the mid-western sections of the US covered under the shallow water of the sea.  The name, which means ‘naked reptile,’ was given by Othniel Marsh in 1876.


Considered one of the strangest creatures to have ever lived, it had 30 legs, 30 flippers, a nose like an elephant’s trunk, and a lobster-like claw.


Colloquially known as “terror bird,” this was the largest flightless predatory bird to have ever lived. It fed on small rodents and mammals and could supposedly run at speeds of up to 40 mph.


Also known as Pterosaurs, it had a wingspan of 4 feet and may have weighed between 5 to 10 lbs. Its long, curved beak with numerous bristle-like teeth allowed it to feed on a diet of plankton and small crustaceanas.


The biggest pterosaur to ever take to the skies, it supposedly did not have any feathers. Though it had a wing span that exceeded 30 feet, it took off using both its hind and front legs and flew without flapping its wings.


Greek for “Sharov’s wings,” this gliding reptile that inhabited the woodlands of Central Asia was about one foot long and mostly fed on insects. Not capable of powered flight, it would merely glide from tree to tree something like a flying squirrel.


An extinct genus of prehistoric sharks, Stethacanthus or ‘chest spike,” was about 6 feet long with a strange looking back growth on males. This small protrusion or ‘ironing board,’  could have been used to frighten larger predators.


Image converted using ImgCvt

The Greek word for “long necked one,” this prehistoric reptile was easily over 20 feet long, with a narrow neck that could extend out for up to half its length.


The “reaper lizards” may have roamed Mongolia, China, and the United States and due to their long neck, pot belly, four-toed feet, and beaky mouth, scientists at first thought they may be not one but several creatures.

Fish, Birds, and Creatures – Day 5 & Prehistoric Creatures, Part 1 of 3

Did You make the animals or people first?

“And God said, Let the waters bring forth  abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and fowl that may fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven.  And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind.  And God saw that it was good.

And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply and fill the waters in the seas, and let  fowl multiply in the earth.  Andthe evening and the morning  were the fifth day” (Gen 1:20-23).

Prehistoric Creatures, Part 1 of 3

Most people think of dinosaurs as big, ferocious and extinct reptiles. That’s largely true, but there are some misconceptions. Dinosaurs came in all shapes and sizes.

The name Tyrannosaurus rex means “king of the tyrant lizards”: “tyranno” means tyrant in Greek; “saurus” means lizard in Greek, and “rex” means “king” in Latin. In 1905, Henry Fairfield Osborn, president of the American Museum of Natural History at the time, named Tyrannosaurus Rex.

Dinosaurs were the largest land animals of all time, but a great number of dinosaurs were smaller than a turkey.

Dinosaurs first appeared about 230 million years ago. They ruled the Earth for about 135 million years until an extinction event 65 million years ago wiped out all but bird-like dinosaurs.

Scientists don’t agree entirely on what happened, but the extinction likely was a double or triple whammy involving an asteroid impact, choking chemicals from erupting volcanoes, climate change and possibly other factors.

Flying On

Yet only the big, classic dinosaurs are extinct. Birds are living dinosaurs, most experts believe. Think of that next time a pigeon strafes you.

Paleontologists view Archaeopteryx as a transition between dinosaurs and modern birds.

Fossils show that some of the more advanced dinosaurs had feathers or feather-like body covering, but many of them didn’t fly and probably didn’t even glide. 

Archaeopteryx, which was for a long time considered to be the first bird (although this status is not certain), is the most famous example. Instead, feathers, rather than being an adaptation for flight, helped these bird-like non-birds stay warm as juveniles.

Many people think extinct flying reptiles called pterosaurs were dinosaurs. They were dinosaurs’ closest relatives but technically not dinosaurs.

Pterosaurs had hollow bones, relatively large brains and eyes, and, of course, the flaps of skin extending along their arms, which were attached to the digits on their front hands.

The family includes Pterodactyls, with elaborate, bony head crests and lack of teeth. Pterosaurs survived up until the mass die-off 65 million years ago, when they were went the way of the dodo along with marine reptiles and other dinosaurs.

Pterodactyl is the common term for the winged reptiles properly called pterosaurs.

Hip Check

Dinosaur fossils were first recognized in the 19th century. In 1842, paleontologist Richard Owen coined the term dinosaur, derived from the Greek deinos, meaning “terrible” or “fearfully great,” and sauros, meaning “lizard” or reptile.”

Scientists classify dinosaurs into two orders — Saurischians and Ornithischians — based on the structure of the bones in their hips.

Most of the well-known dinosaurs — including Tyrannosaurus rexDeinonychus and Velociraptor — fall into the order known as Saurischian dinosaurs (pronounced sor-ISK-ee-en). 

Velociraptor roamed the Earth about 85.8 million to 70.6 million years ago during the end of the Cretaceous Period.

These “reptile-hipped” dinosaurs have a pelvis that points forward, similar to more primitive animals. They are often long-necked, have large and sharp teeth, long second fingers, and a first finger that points strongly away from the rest of the fingers.

Saurischians are divided into two groups – four legged herbivores called sauropods and two-legged carnivores called theropods (living birds are theropods).

Theropods walked on two legs and were carnivorous. “Theropod” means “beast-footed” and they are some of the fearsome and most recognizable dinosaurs — including Allosaurus and T. rex.

Scientists have wondered whether large theropods — such as Giganotosaurus and Spinosaurus — actively hunted their prey, or simply scavenged carcasses.

Spinosaurus was the biggest of all the carnivorous dinosaurs, larger than Tyrannosaurus and Giganotosaurus. It lived during part of the Cretaceous period, about 112 million to 97 million years ago, roaming the swamps of North Africa.
Two Spinosaurus species have been named based on the regions where they were discovered: Spinosaurus aegyptiacus Egyptian spine lizard) and Spinosaurus maroccanus (Moroccan spine lizard).
Spinosaurus means “spine lizard,” an appropriate descriptor, as the dinosaur had very long spines growing on its back to form what is referred to as a “sail.” The distinctive spines, which grew out of the animal’s back vertebrae, were up to 7 feet (2.1 meters) long and were likely connected to one another by skin.

The evidence points to the animals working together as opportunistic hunters: they would bring down prey, but also eat animals that were lying around.

When fossil-hunters found bones with bite marks on them, they wondered if theropods engaged in cannibalism. It appears now that the animals may have scavenged their own kind, but they didn’t hunt down their own.

Sauropods were herbivores with long heads, long necks and long tails. They were among the largest land animals ever, but they likely had small brains. The gentle giants like leaf-eating ApatosaurusBrachiosaurus and Diplodocus are part of this family.


Archaeologists have found the remains of a dinosaur that could reshape our understanding of the natural history of planet Earth.
The “triceratops-style” beast was discovered after its tooth was dug out of rock in Missippipi.
The ceratopsid dinosaur is believed to have roamed across North America between 66 and 68 million years ago.
Until now, scientists believed ancient North America was entirely split by an enormous sea.
But the discovery of the horned dinosaur has suggested there was a bridge between the two sides of America.

Ornithischian (pronounced or-neh-THISK-ee-en) dinosaurs, a group that includes horned and frilled Triceratops, spiked  Stegosaurus  and armored Ankylosaurus, are more mild-mannered, plant eaters.

These dinosaurs were beaked herbivores. Smaller than the sauropods, the ornithischia (meaning “bird-hipped”) often lived in herds and were prey to the larger species of dinosaurs.

Interestingly, the ornithischia shifted from a two-legged to a four-legged posture at least three times in their evolutionary history and scientists think they could adopt both postures early in their evolutionary history.

Marine reptiles

During the age of the dinosaurs, a lot was happening below the surface of the world’s oceans.  The “fish flippers,” or ichthyopterygia, includes Ichthyosaurus — the streamlined, tuna- and dolphin-shaped ocean-going

Stegosaurus was a large, plant-eating dinosaur that lived during the late Jurassic Period, about 150.8 million to 155.7 million years ago, primarily in western North America. It was about the size of a bus and carried around two rows of bony plates along its back that made it appear even bigger.


This abundant family of marine reptiles largely went extinct at the end of the Jurassic Period.



The Sun, Moon, and Stars – Day 4

What about the sun and moon, how’d they get here? 

“And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years.  And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth.  And it was so.

Fun Facts of the Sun, Moon & Stars

And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser to rule the night.  He made the star also.

And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth, and to rule the day and over the night, and to divide the light from darkness.  And God saw that it was good. 

And the evening and the morning were the fourth day” (Gen 1:14-19).

Dry Land – Day 3 and Prehistory – Environment

Okay, You made the light and the water.  Where did the land come from?

“And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place,and let the dry land appear.  And it was so. 

And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called the Seas.  And God saw that it was good.

And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth.  And it was so. 

And the earth brought forth grass and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind.  And God saw that it was good. 

And the evening and the morning were the thirdday (Gen 1:9-13).

He hath compassed the waters with bounds, until the day and night come to an end (Job 26:10).

Prehistory – Environment 8000 B.C. – 1 A.D.

About 8000 B.C.: The last Ice age ended when the ice sheets finally retreated from Scandinavia and the glaciers in Scotland disappeared.

The Gobekli Tepe civilisation of Turkey that started some 8,000 years before the nativity and more than 4,000 years before the Sumerian civilization. But, they have left us the first cathedral on a hill.

People, animals and plants invaded the appearing land after the ice had disappeared. Part of the North Sea is still dry.

Ice Age Child Found in Prehistoric Alaskan Home
By Brian Handwerk, for National Geographic News
In what’s now central Alaska, one of the first Americans, only three years old at the time, was laid to rest in a pit inside his or her house 11,500 years ago.
One thing that apparently isn’t a mystery is how the child was memorialized.
“You can see that the child was laid in the pit—a fire hearth inside the house—and the fire was started on top of the child,” study co-author Joel Irish said. Charred wood from the pit allowed scientists to assign a radiocarbon date to the site.
After the cremation, the child’s hunter-gatherer clan apparently filled the 18-inch-deep (45-centimeter-deep) hearth with soil and abandoned the dwelling. No other artifacts exist above the fill line.
Even the new find represents only 20 percent of the child’s skeleton, offering few clues as to how the child died. But what’s left makes it clear that the youngster died before burial and was placed in a position of peaceful repose.

8000 – 7000 B.C.: Age of the Hunter

Gatherers. The European environment was transformed: the boreal forests (coniferous forests) were pushed back to Scandinavia, tundra and steppe were all but removed from the scene and the dominant vegetation type was now mixed deciduous forest covering over 80% of the land bordering the North Sea.

Humans followed vegetation and recolonize northern Europe.

7500 B.C.: The melting of the ice sheets resulted in the flooding of the North Sea basin and the disappearance of the land bridge connecting Britain to the continent by 8000 years ago.

This prevented many tree and plans species to invade Britain and explains, for example, why it has only two species of conifer: Scots Pine and juniper (the status of yew is contested).

6000 – 2500 B.C.:Sea level reached a slightly higher level than today coinciding with the warmest period of the past 10,000 years with temperatures about 2 degrees celsius higher than today.

8000-5000 B.C.:Impact Mesolithic peoples

A new study by an international team of researchers says that fires started by prehistoric humans – either deliberately or by mistake – might be the reason Europe is not more densely forested today.
The research, published November 30, 2016 in PLOS ONE, suggests that, more than 20,000 years before the industrial revolution, humans were capable of making a large-scale impact on Earth’s landscape and vegetation.
During the coldest phase of the last Ice Age, which peaked about 21,000 years ago and ended about 11,500 years ago, hunter-gatherers might have deliberately lit forest fires in an attempt to create grasslands and park-like forests.

Mesolithic 1 Europeans altered the landscape through fire more thoroughly than their predecessors. By doing so they created a more predictable environment for themselves.

Burning grasses helped rejuvenate their environments over a period of five to six years, attracting game, especially if open areas were maintained near water sources.

It probably through the use of fire and other land  management techniques that created large open areas which is probably most important environmental legacy of the Mesolithic peoples.

The Europeans learned to manipulate their environments and created a mosaic of woodlands and open land that they so favoured for food gathering and hunting.

Manipulation could be extreme: it was Mesolithic hunter-gatherers who first deforested the western Isles of Scotland. By 3000 years ago there was no tree left on these isles.

5000-4000 B.C.: Arrival of agriculture

Farming, including crops like emmer and einkorn and domesticated animals, reached northwestern Europe via southeastern and central Europe by ca. 4,800 BC during the Neolithic 2 period.

It is likely that local peoples were not replaced by immigrant populations but observed and adapted to the new way of life: agriculture. Immigrants would have set examples and pushed hunter-gatherers into agriculture.

Last Ice Age Warning! –Melting “Greenland Sized” Pleistocene Ice Sheet Raised Raised Sea Level 20 Feet
Posted on Nov 12, 2017
New research shows that climate warming reduced the mass of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet by half in as little as 500 years, indicating the Greenland Ice Sheet could have a similar fate.
The Cordilleran Ice Sheet covered large parts of North America during the Pleistocene – or Last Ice Age – and was similar in mass to the Greenland Ice Sheet.
Previous research estimated that it covered much of western Canada as late as 12,500 years ago, but new data shows that large areas in the region were ice-free as early as 1,500 years earlier.
This confirms that once ice sheets start to melt, they can do so very quickly.

That must not have been hard since many hunter-gatherers had managed wild life and plant resources in a way that can be described as proto-agriculture.

It is also likely that agriculture sprang up independently in some locations and was later supplemented by the grains and animals arriving from the Middle East.

The spread of agriculture through Europe during the Neolithic period. Source: Wikipedia.

The new economic and ecological regime was based on barley, oats, sheep, goats and domesticated cattle, all of which had wild ancestors in Anatolia and the Near East.

This indicates that Northwest Europe was integrated into a wider cultural-economic-environmental network (a process that we call nowadays “globalisation”).

Between the Neolithic and the 18th century, agriculture was the main cause of culturally driven environmental change.

 2100 BC – 1 A.D.: Bronze and Iron Age
By about 1 AD the countryside in many parts of western Europe was already owned, managed and planned. This had been the case for most of the Bronze and Iron Age. Little wildwood remains and the land resource was well planned with field systems in rotation, pasture and coppiced woodland. Hill forts became common and acted as local centres of administration, power and refuge.

Crops: The range of crops grown had widened considerably since the early bronze age. Although the most important were wheat and barley, oats, tic beans, vetch, peas, rye, flax and fat hen were regularly grown. Storage of crops was either in pits or in raised stores and harvest was over several months – weeds, grain and then straw.

Livestock: Sheep, goats, cattle, pigs, poultry, geese and ducks. Horses were a new arrival in the farmsteads but they were not used for work so much as symbols of status.

The Earth’s climate has changed throughout history. Just in the last 650,000 years there have been seven cycles of glacial advance and retreat, with the abrupt end of the last ice age about 7,000 years ago marking the beginning of the modern climate era — and of human civilization. Most of these climate changes are attributed to very small variations in Earth’s orbit that change the amount of solar energy our planet receives.

Farming systems: Farming typically revolved around small hamlets and farmsteads with enclosed rectilinear fields – each having areas of pasture, arable and wood.

Ploughing became more efficient with the arrival of the iron share (plough point) and a two field rotation was introduced; crops one year followed by a fallow that was grazed by livestock.

This lead to surprisingly high yields and fueled population growth, even though retreat from the uplands had been necessary because of climate deterioration.

Woodland and hedges: In southern parts of the country, most of the wildwood had been cleared and given way to farming or coppice management. In northern parts, or where the ground was particularly unsuitable for agriculture, wildwood remained, but under constant threat. Land around the farmsteads was usually enclosed by hazel fencing or hedging.

Climate: The climate of the iron age was much cooler and wetter by comparison with that of the bronze age – but was probably similar to that of today.

Roman Invasion: The Romans invaded large parts of Western Europe from the middle of the 1st century BC. This started a process of Romanisation of population and landscape.

The Firmament – Day 2

Wow!  Edison doesn’t have anything on You.  After You made the light what did You do?

“And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.  And God made the firmament, and divided the waters, which were above the firmament: and it was so.

And called the firmament Heaven.  And the evening and the morning were the second day” (Gen 1:6-8).

Have ye not known?  Have ye not heard?  Hath it not been told you from the beginning?  Have ye not understood from the foundations of the earth?  It is he that sitteth upon the circle of the earth, and the inhabitants thereof are as grasshoppers; that stretcheth out the heavens as a curtain, and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in(Is 40:21-22).

“He stretcheth out the north over the empty place, and hangeth the earth upon nothing” (Job 26:7).