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Spoils of War and More Rules & The Hittite Laws

Just Standing e1539012764245We have a lot of laws that aren’t right and our judges aren’t like the one’s You had appointed, circumstantial evidence is enough to execute someone.

“And seest among the captives a beautiful woman, and hast a desire unto her, that thou wouldest have her to thy wife;

1.
No text has had a greater influence on attitudes toward gay people than the biblical book of Leviticus, which prohibits sex between men. Before Leviticus was composed, outright prohibitions against homosexual sex — whether between men or women — were practically unheard-of in the ancient world.
Chapter 18 of Leviticus contains a list of forbidden incestuous acts, followed by prohibitions against sex with a menstruating woman, bestiality and various other sexual acts.
In Verse 22, we find its most famous injunction:
“You shall not lie with a male as with a woman; it is an abomination.” (Leviticus 20:13 repeats this law, along with a punishment for those who violate it: “They shall be put to death; their blood is upon them.”)
The core of Leviticus 18 is the list of incest laws, each of which includes the memorable phrase “uncover nakedness.” This is typically understood as a euphemism for sexual intercourse, so “you shall not uncover the nakedness of your father’s sister” would mean something like “do not have sex with your father’s sister.”

Then thou shalt bring her home to thine house; and she shall shave her head, and pare her nails; 

And she shall put the raiment of her captivity from off her, and shall remain in thine house, and bewail her father and her mother a full month: and after that thou shalt go in unto her, and be her husband, and she shall be thy wife. 

And it shall be, if thou have no delight in her, then thou shalt let her go whither she will; but thou shalt not sell her at all for money, thou shalt not make merchandise of her, because thou hast humbled her.

If a man have two wives, one beloved, and another hated, and they have born him children, both the beloved and the hated; and if the firstborn son be hers that was hated:

Then it shall be, when he maketh his sons to inherit that which he hath, that he may not make the son of the beloved firstborn before the son of the hated, which is indeed the firstborn:

But he shall acknowledge the son of the hated for the firstborn, by giving him a double portion of all that he hath: for he is the beginning of his strength; the right of the firstborn is his.

If a man have a stubborn and rebellious son, which will not obey the voice of his father, or the voice of his mother, and that, when they have chastened him, will not hearken unto them:

Then shall his father and his mother lay hold on him, and bring him out unto the elders of his city, and unto the gate of his place.

And they shall say unto the elders of his city, This our son is stubborn and rebellious, he will not obey our voice; he is a glutton, and a drunkard. 

And all the men of his city shall stone him with stones, that he die: so shalt thou put evil away from among you; and all Israel shall hear, and fear.

And if a man have committed a sin worthy of death, and he be to be put to death, and thou hang him on a tree: 

2. Map
World homosexuality laws
According to Aristotle, although most “belligerent nations” were strongly influenced by their women, the Celts were unusual because their men openly preferred male lovers (Politics II 1269b).
H. D. Rankin in Celts and the Classical World notes that “Athenaeus echoes this comment (603a) and so does Ammianus (30.9). It seems to be the general opinion of antiquity.”
In book XIII of his Deipnosophists, the Roman Greek rhetorician and grammarian Athenaeus, repeating assertions made by Diodorus Siculus in the 1st century BC (Bibliotheca historica 5:32), wrote that Celtic women were beautiful but that the men preferred to sleep together.
Diodorus went further, stating that “the young men will offer themselves to strangers and are insulted if the offer is refused”.
Rankin argues that the ultimate source of these assertions is likely to be Poseidonius and speculates that these authors may be recording “some kind of bonding ritual … which requires abstinence from women at certain times”.
Appostle Paul Explains Homosexuality and the End Time
“For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth in unrighteousness;
Because that, when they knew God, they glorified him not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened.
Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools,
And changed the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and fourfooted beasts, and creeping things.
Wherefore God also gave them up to uncleanness through the lusts of their own hearts, to dishonour their own bodies between themselves:
Who changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen.
For this cause God gave them up unto vile affections: for even their women did change the natural use into that which is against nature:
And likewise also the men, leaving the natural use of the woman, burned in their lust one toward another; men with men working that which is unseemly, and receiving in themselves that recompence of their error which was meet.
And even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not convenient;
Being filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, debate, deceit, malignity; whisperers,
Backbiters, haters of God, despiteful, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents,
Without understanding, covenantbreakers, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful:
Who knowing the judgment of God, that they which commit such things are worthy of death, not only do the same, but have pleasure in them that do them” (Rom 1:18, 21-32).

His body shall not remain all night upon the tree, but thou shalt in any wise bury him that day; (for he that is 1 hanged is accursed of God;) that thy land be not defiled, which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance” (Deut 21:11-23).

There are many rules in Deuteronomy, but here I will only list those that involve the violation of another or if the act can cause the proprietor of the act problems.

If the people found another person’s animals or anything they were to return them to the people and if they weren’t home they were to keep everything until they were.

And women weren’t allowed to wear the clothes that men wear, and vice versa.  This does not mean that women cannot wear pants, it means that a man or a woman is not supposed to cross dress, so that they look like the opposite sex.

“Thou shalt not plow with an ox and an ass together” (Deut 22:10). 

They may not work well together, but this rule was made for us today where Paul says we aren’t supposed to be unequally yoked (2 Cor 6:14-17).

What he means is that we’re not supposed to marry a non-believer because they are enemies of God. 

But hold on, if you are married to a non-believer that does not mean you must divorce (God’s against divorce), because God has made preparations for such things (1 Cor 7:12-15).

“If any man take a wife, and go in unto her, and hate her,

And give occasions of speech against her, and bring up an evil name upon her, and say, I took this woman, and when I came to her, I found her not a maid,

Then shall the father of the damsel, and her mother, take and bring forth the tokens of the damsel’s virginity unto the elders of the city in the gate:

And the damsel’s father shall say unto the elders, I gave my daughter unto this man to wife, and he hateth her.

And, lo, he hath given occasions of speech against her, saying, I found not thy daughter a maid; and yet these are the tokens of my daughter’s virginity.  And they shall spread the cloth before the elders of the city. 

And the elders of that city shall take that man and chastise him;

And they shall amerce him in an hundred shekels of silver, and give them unto the father of the damsel, because he hath brought up an evil name upon a virgin of Israel: and she shall be his wife; he may not put her away all his days.

But if this thing be true, and the tokens of virginity be not found for the damsel:

Then they shall bring out the damsel to the door of her father’s house, and the men of her city shall stone her with stones that she die: because she hath wrought folly in Israel, to play the whore in her father’s house: so shalt thou put evil away from among you” (Deut 22:13-21).

The penalty of adultery was death.  The penalty of fornication wasn’t death, but the man had to pay the woman’s father 50 shekels of silver and marry her for life.

God is also against incest.

1 Hanging someone on a tree is what the Romans and Jews did to Jesus , but it’s nothing compared to what the people of Nineveh did, and Job hated them more than anyone (Gal 3:13).

The Hittite Laws

4. Treaty
Treaty between Hittite king Mursili II and Talmi-sharruma of Aleppo to regulate future relations between two states, circa 1300 B.C.
In the ancient Middle East, it was customary when making covenants or treaties to create two identical copies of the governing document–one for each party to keep.

From about 1800 B.C. onward, for instance, various Hittite kings followed this model to manage relations with their suzerain or vassal states.

Many historians date Biblical law texts to fairly late in Israel’s history.

Explicitly or implicitly, they view regulations such as those spelled out in Exodus and Deuteronomy as too complex and advanced to stem from such a “primitive” period as that of Moses and Joshua. 

The discoveries of lengthy and detailed law codes from the ancient Near East would seem to belie this notion.

The Hittite laws have come to us in two versions, the first from the Old Kingdom 600-1400 B.C.) and the second from the Middle Kingdom and Empire peri­ods (c. 1400-1200). 

The second iteration parallels the first, being similar in order and content.

Hittite laws deal with many of the same issues as their Biblical counterparts – quarrels resulting in:

Maiming or unintend­ed homicide,
Marriages and dowries,
Theft,
Especially of animals,
Incest and,
Bes­tiality. 

Of course, the specific stipulations of Biblical and Hittite laws are often quite different. 

For example, the Hittite New King­dom law IV states that if a murdered man was found on another’s property, the owner was to forfeit his house, property and 6,040 shekels of silver.

If the corpse was located in an open field, a village within 3 miles (4.8 km) of the victim was to pay the fee. 

5. Hittite gods on a rock wall
Sculptures of large figures thought to be Hittite gods on a rock wall at Gavurkale, Turkey.

The Hittite Laws comprise an anonymously authored collection of two hundred laws from Central Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) dating to the second millennium B.C.

The laws are written on clay tablets in cuneiform script.

Cuneiform, from the Latin meaning “wedge-shaped,” is one of the earliest known writing systems and is composed of signs, both logographic (representing a word) and syllabic (representing a unit of sound).

Scribes, who were specially trained to compose and copy documents, wrote cuneiform by pressing a stylus, usually made of reed, into the damp clay of the tablet.

The Hittite Laws are divided into two series that the Hittites named after the first few words of the texts, “If a man” and “If a vine.”

In Deuteronomy 21:1 -9, on the other hand, if the body of a murder victim was discovered in an open field, the elders of the nearest vil­lage were to make a sacrifice and swear that they had no knowledge of the crime’s perpetrator(s).

This would purge the village of any culpability, and no fee was involved. 

Once again, Hittite laws reveal that lengthy, complex law codes could and did exist in the mid-second millennium B.C., the implication being that Exodus and Deu­teronomy may indeed be dated to this ear­lier period.

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