John 18 – Jesus Betrayal and Arrest & Once Majestic Cities That Sank Beneath The Ocean

Finger Pointing UpNo telling what is at the bottom of the ocean, below are a few things found.

Tomorrow we’ll look at…

John 18
Jesus Betrayal and Arrest

1 When Jesus had spoken these words, he went forth with his disciples over the brook Cedron, where was a garden, into the which he entered, and his disciples.

1 The Capture of Christ
The Capture of Christ by Fra Angelico, c. 1440, depicting Judas and Peter, cutting the ear of the Malchu
s, the servant of Caiaphas.

Remember, even though Jesus was God, He was also a man and He had our weaknesses, not our sins, but our weaknesses.

He asked the Father if He had to go through with the crucifixion? (Lk 22:42).
Who would want to go throu
gh what Jesus went through?

“The brook Cedron” – east of Jerusalem and dry except during the rainy season.

2 And Judas also, which betrayed him, knew the place: for Jesus ofttimes resorted thither with his disciples.

3 Judas then, having received a band of men and officers from the chief priests and Pharisees, cometh thither with lanterns and torches and weapons.

“Officers from the chief priests and Pharisees” – equivalent to the temple guard sent by the Sanhedrin.

“Lanterns” – These were not Coleman, but terracotta holders which household lamps could be inserted.

“Torches” – resinous pieces of wood fastened together.

4 Jesus therefore, knowing all things that should come upon him, went forth, and said unto them, Whom seek ye?

“Knowing all things that should come upon him” – Jesus wasn’t taken by surprise.

5 They answered him, Jesus of Nazareth. Jesus saith unto them, I am he. And Judas also, which betrayed him, stood with them.

6 As soon then as he had said unto them, I am he, they went backward, and fell to the ground.

7 Then asked he them again, Whom seek ye? And they said, Jesus of Nazareth.

8 Jesus answered, I have told you that I am he: if therefore ye seek me, let these go their way:

2 The Brook
The Brook of Cedron.
So called from Kedar, black, dark, gloomy.

This was the memorable brook over which the great Redeemer passed, to enter the garden of Gethsemane, the night before his sufferings and death. Here, indeed, Jesus often walked, for he loved the sacred haunts of that hallowed ground, where he knew his last agony, in the conflicts with Satan, was to take place. (John 18:1-2)

The brook itself lay in a valley to the east of the city, between Jerusalem and the mount of Olives; and it emptied itself in the dead Sea.

9 That the saying might be fulfilled, which he spake, Of them which thou gavest me have I lost none.

10 Then Simon Peter having a sword drew it, and smote the high priest’s servant, and cut off his right ear. The servant’s name was Malchus.

11 Then said Jesus unto Peter, Put up thy sword into the sheath: the cup which my Father hath given me, shall I not drink it?

“The cup” – often points to suffering (Ps 75:8; Eze 23:31-34) and the wrath of God (Is 51:17, 22; Jer 25:15; Rev 14:10, 16:19).

12 Then the band and the captain and officers of the Jews took Jesus, and bound him,

13 And led him away to Annas first; for he was father in law to Caiaphas, which was the high priest that same year.

“Annas” – had been deposed with the high priesthood by the Romans in 15 A.D. but was probably still regarded by many as the true high priest.  In Jewish law a man couldn’t be sentenced on the day his trial was held.

The two examinations – this one and that before Caiaphas – may have been conducted to give some form of legitimacy to what was done.

14 Now Caiaphas was he, which gave counsel to the Jews that it was expedient that one man should die for the people.

15 And Simon Peter followed Jesus, and so did another disciple: that disciple was known unto the high priest, and went in with Jesus into the palace of the high priest.

3 Kidron Valley
Kidron Valley
The Kidron Valley (classical transliteration, Cedron, from Hebrew: נחל קדרון‎, Naḥal Qidron; also Qidron Valley; Arabic: وادي الجوز‎, Wadi al-Joz) is the valley on the eastern side of The Old City of Jerusalem, separating the Temple Mount from the Mount of Olives.

It continues east through the Judean Desert, towards the Dead Sea, descending 4000 feet along its 20 mile course. The settlement Kedar, located on a ridge above the valley, is named after it. The neighborhood of Wadi Al-Joz bears the valley’s Arabic name.

The Bible calls the Valley “Valley of Jehoshaphat – Emek Yehoshafat.” It appears in Jewish eschatologic prophecies, which include the return of Elijah, followed by the arrival of the Messiah, and the War of Gog and Magog and Judgment Day.

16 But Peter stood at the door without. Then went out that other disciple, which was known unto the high priest, and spake unto her that kept the door, and brought in Peter.

17 Then saith the damsel that kept the door unto Peter, Art not thou also one of this man’s disciples? He saith, I am not.

18 And the servants and officers stood there, who had made a fire of coals; for it was cold: and they warmed themselves: and Peter stood with them, and warmed himself.

19 The high priest then asked Jesus of his disciples, and of his doctrine.

20 Jesus answered him, I spake openly to the world; I ever taught in the synagogue, and in the temple, whither the Jews always resort; and in secret have I said nothing.

21 Why askest thou me? ask them which heard me, what I have said unto them: behold, they know what I said.

22 And when he had thus spoken, one of the officers which stood by struck Jesus with the palm of his hand, saying, Answerest thou the high priest so?

23 Jesus answered him, If I have spoken evil, bear witness of the evil: but if well, why smitest thou me?

24 Now Annas had sent him bound unto Caiaphas the high priest.

4 The Old City
The Old City of Jerusalem, as seen from across the Kidron Valley.

25 And Simon Peter stood and warmed himself. They said therefore unto him, Art not thou also one of his disciples? He denied it, and said, I am not.

26 One of the servants of the high priest, being his kinsman whose ear Peter cut off, saith, Did not I see thee in the garden with him?

27 Peter then denied again: and immediately the cock crew.

28 Then led they Jesus from Caiaphas unto the hall of judgment: and it was early; and they themselves went not into the judgment hall, lest they should be defiled; but that they might eat the passover.

“The hall of judgment” – the palace of the Roman governor, Pilate.  John says little about the Jewish phase of Jesus’ trial but much about the Roman trial.  It’s possible that John was in the Praetorium, the governor’s official residence, for this trial.

5 Lanterns
Lanterns are first spoken of by Theopompus, a Greek poet, and Empedocles of Agrigentum. Lanterns were used by the ancients in augury.

The only known representation of an ancient Egyptian lantern probably is not much different from those spoken of by John the Evangelist in John 18:3 from the New Testament, where the party of men who went out of Jerusalem to apprehend Jesus in the garden of Gethsemane is described as being provided “with lanterns and torches.” Lanterns in ancient China were made of silk, paper, or animal skin with frames made of bamboo or wood.

One of the earliest descriptions of paper lanterns is found in records from Khotan, which describe a “mounting lantern” made of white paper.

29 Pilate then went out unto them, and said, What accusation bring ye against this man?

30 They answered and said unto him, If he were not a malefactor, we would not have delivered him up unto thee.

31 Then said Pilate unto them, Take ye him, and judge him according to your law. The Jews therefore said unto him, It is not lawful for us to put any man to death:

“Take ye him” – in other words, no Roman charge, not Roman trial.

“Not lawful for us to put any man to death” – the Jews were looking for an execution, not a fair trial.  The restriction was important for otherwise Rome’s supporters could be quietly removed by local legal executions. 

Sometimes the Roman’s seem to have condoned local execution (e.g., of Stephen, Acts 7), but normally they retained the right to inflict the death penalty.

32 That the saying of Jesus might be fulfilled, which he spake, signifying what death he should die.

6 Torch
Torch construction varies depending on its when it was constructed and for what purpose. Torches were usually constructed of a wooden stave with one end wrapped in a fabric which was soaked in a flammable substance.

Variations of this design have existed through history. In ancient Rome some torches were made of sulfur mixed with lime. This meant that the fire would not diminish after being plunged into water. Modern procession torches are made from coarse hessian rolled into a tube and soaked in wax.

There is usually a wooden handle and a cardboard collar to deflect any wax droplets. They are an easy, safe and relatively cheap way to hold a flame aloft in a parade, or to provide illumination in any after-dark celebration.

33 Then Pilate entered into the judgment hall again, and called Jesus, and said unto him, Art thou the King of the Jews?

34 Jesus answered him, Sayest thou this thing of thyself, or did others tell it thee of me?

35 Pilate answered, Am I a Jew? Thine own nation and the chief priests have delivered thee unto me: what hast thou done?

36 Jesus answered, My kingdom is not of this world: if my kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight, that I should not be delivered to the Jews: but now is my kingdom not from hence.

37 Pilate therefore said unto him, Art thou a king then? Jesus answered, Thou sayest that I am a king. To this end was I born, and for this cause came I into the world, that I should bear witness unto the truth. Every one that is of the truth heareth my voice.

38 Pilate saith unto him, What is truth? And when he had said this, he went out again unto the Jews, and saith unto them, I find in him no fault at all.

“What is truth?” – Pilate may have been jesting, and meant, “What does truth matter?”  Yet, he didn’t want to crucify Jesus so he probably meant something like, “It isn’t easy to find truth, what is it?”

“Find in him no fault at all” – teaching the truth was not a criminal offense.

39 But ye have a custom that I should release unto you one at the passover: will ye therefore that I release unto you the King of the Jews?

40 Then cried they all again, saying, Not this man, but Barabbas. Now Barabbas was a robber.

“Barabbas” – a rebel and a murderer (Lk 23:19). The name is Aramaic and means “son of Abba.”

Once Majestic Cities
That Sank Beneath The Ocean

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No great metropolis stands forever. Eventually, every city falls. Some due to war, others to disaster. But the saddest and most poignant ruined cities might be the ones which have been swept under the ocean. Here are some of the most beautiful submerged cities. (Top image: Alexandria.)

Alexandria, Egypt, founded by Alexander the Great in 331 B.C.

Some of the most interesting sections of the magnificent city, including the palace quarter with Cleopatra’s Palace on the Island of Antirhodos and the old city of Rhakotis, were submerged by tidal waves and earthquakes more than 1200 years ago.

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Heracleion (also known as Thonis), Egypt, founded in the 8th century B.C.

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This ruin was discovered in 2000 by Team IEASM (Institut Européen D’Archéologie Sous-Marine). Before the foundation of Alexandria, it was the most important port of Egypt. And it was sunk in the 8th century.

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Heracleion had the temple of Amun, which played an important role in rites associated with dynastic continuity

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Canopus, in the eastern outskirts of modern-day Alexandria

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First mentioned in the 6th century BC. Canopus was known for its sanctuaries of Osiris and Serapis. Discovered in 1933.

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Mystical stone structures below the waters off Yonaguni Jima Island, Japan, discovered by a local diver in 1986

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Is that a 5,000-year-old city sunk by an earthquake 2,000 years ago with an awesome monolithic, stepped pyramid — or just a natural sandstone structure?

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 There are ruins of a castle, five temples, a triumphal arch and at least one large stadium, connected by roads and water channels, according to Masaaki Kimura, a marine geologist at the University of the Ryukyus.

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Saeftinghe (or Saaftinge), southwest Netherlands, now a swamp known as the Drowned Land of Saeftinghe 30

The land around the town was lost in the All Saint’s Flood of 1570, and the city was sunk in 1584, during the Eighty Years’ War, where Dutch soldiers were forced to destroy the last intact dike around the town.
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Port Royal, Jamaica, founded in 1518 and destroyed by an earthquake, a tsunami and fires in 1692.

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 It was a popular spot for the English and Dutch sponsored privateers to spend their treasure in the 16th century, but later it turned to the main base of pirates. The earthquake of 1692 liquefied the sand, and lots of buildings slid into the water or simply sank straight down.

The city of Baiae (also known as Campania) and the Portus Julius, home port of the western Imperial Fleet, Bay of Naples, Italy, a popular resort for the ultra-wealthy in the last decades of the Roman Republic. It had a casino and a giant swimming pool, too.

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Baiae was sacked by Muslim raiders in the 8th century, and was entirely deserted because of an epidemic of malaria around 1500. The most of the buildings are now under water, due to local volcanic activity.

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Pavlopetri, Greece37

The 5,000 years old city was discovered in 1967 by Nicholas Flemming, but the archeologist kept finding new buildings every year.

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The Neolithic village of Atlit-Yam, off the coast of Atlit, Israel

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This site, lies 25-40 feet beneath sea level dates at least between 6900 and 6300 BC. There are some rectangular houses, wells and a stone semicircle with seven megaliths, 1320 lb. each. Ten flexed burials have been discovered, including a woman and child who were the earliest known cases of MTB (tuberculosis).

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Lion City (Shi Cheng) of Qingdao Lake, China

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The city was flooded in 1959 to create an artificial lake for the Xin’an River Dam Project. 290,000 people were relocated.

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Shi Cheng was built during the Eastern Han Dynasty (between 25 and 200). In the 7th and 8th century this place was a cultural, economical and political center, but now it lies 90 feet (27 m) below the surface.

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Samabaj, the Lost Maya City in Lake Atitlan, Guatemala, found by Roberto Samayoa Asmus in 1996.

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The most important spiritual and healing center in Guatemala for over 2,000 years, Lake Atitlán has been inhabited since at least 300 BC. Ceremonies were performed from 200 BC-200 AD at a now-submerged temple on one of three islands off San Lucas.

Samabaj vanished beneath the water about 1,700 years ago, when the lake suddenly rose 20 meters. Archaeologists think Volcan Atitlán may have erupted and blocked the outlets at the bottom of the lake with mud.

But Lake Atitlán continued as a ceremonial center and remains a sacred site where Mayan astrology and spirituality are still practiced by many Maya as well as by people who visit from around the world or who now call the lake their home. – according to Mayan Calendar Users Guide.

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Bezidu Nou (Hungarian: Bözödújfalu, German: Neudorf).

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1995

The whole village, including two old churches, was flooded in 1988, and since then only one church tower has been visible for more than two decades. This place was only one of the many destroyed towns and villages in the Ceaușescu-era.

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2008

Countess Claudine Rhédey von Kis-Rhéde, an ancestor of the British Queen Elizabeth II was born here in 1812, but her final resting place was in the Reformed church of the town, which was renovated in 1936 thanks to a donation from Queen Mary of England, great-granddaughter of count Rhédey.

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2009

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2012

…the seven wonders of the Ancient World.

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