Ancient Man’s Cults, Sects, and Religions: Taoism (8 of 8) and Acts 15 – The Council at Jerusalem

Ancient Man’s Cults, Sects, and Religions:
Taoism (8 of 8)

Taoism, founded by Lao-tse (604-531 B.C.), is one of the three great religions of China, along with Buddhism and Confucianism.

Taoism (modernly Daoism) is a philosophical, ethical, and religious tradition of Chinese origin that emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as Dao). The term Tao means "way", "path" or "principle", and can also be found in Chinese philosophies and religions other than Taoism. In Taoism, however, Tao denotes something that is both the source and the driving force behind everything that exists. It is ultimately ineffable: "The Tao that can be told is not the eternal Tao.

Taoism (modernly Daoism) is a philosophical, ethical, and religious tradition of Chinese origin that emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as Dao). The term Tao means “way”, “path” or “principle”, and can also be found in Chinese philosophies and religions other than Taoism. In Taoism, however, Tao denotes something that is both the source and the driving force behind everything that exists. It is ultimately ineffable: “The Tao that can be told is not the eternal Tao.

Though classified as a religion, initially Taoism was a philosophy and did not become organized into a religion until 440 A.D. when it was adopted as a state cult.

The word tao has no direct English equivalent but roughly corresponds to such terms as way, truth, or path.

Its philosophy underlies many of the currents of modern cultic movements and has itself undergone many changes since the time of Lao-tse.

History

Much of the life of Lao-tse is unknown. What is known is that he was an archivist for the state but dropped out of public service and went into seclusion, living like a hermit in a small hut on the side of a mountain.

Chuang-tzu (3rd century B.C.), author of the work that carries his name, the Chuang-tzu, is the first to mention Lao-tse, describing the latter as being one of his great teachers.

The Chuang-tzu contains much of Lao-tse’s teachings and also describes a meeting between him and Confucius.

Lao-tse was originally regarded as being a great teacher and philosopher. Centuries after his death, however, he was deified by those who developed his philosophy into a ritualistic religion.

Lao-tse is also credited with writing the classic Taoist text, Tao-te-Ching (The Way of Power), in which he describes the basic principles a ruler should be guided by.

The White Cloud Taoist Temple is perhaps the world's foremost Taoist temple and has a long history.

The White Cloud Taoist Temple is perhaps the world’s foremost Taoist temple and has a long history.

During the period of Chuang-tzu, an era known in Chinese history as the period of “Warring States” (475-221 B.C.), Taoism began to imbibe elements not original to its teachings, chiefly from Buddhist thought.

A modem rendition of Taoism is said to have been founded by Chuang Tao-ling in the first century A.D. Here, syncretism with the Occult, superstition, and the elevation of the Three Pure Ones (Lao-tse being one) to a position of deity comes to the forefront.

A plethora  of deities for everything imaginable was adopted with accompanying priests, sacrifices, and temples. Many of these practices remain intact today. Taoism has influenced Chinese thought and culture tremendously.

Organization

There are many Taoist communities throughout the world, but because of its antiquity in multicultural settings, there is no single world headquarters. In the contemporary world, Taoism is advocated in self-help and New Age books, with millions of followers.

In the 8th century, TianChang Temple was built in Beijing to house a statue of Lao Tzu. Although it burned down in 1202, in 1224 Genghis Khan ordered the temple to be reconstructed. The temple received its present name during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). The temple was damaged by war or fire and rebuilt several times. Today, it is more or less the same as after a major renovation in 1706.

In the 8th century, TianChang Temple was built in Beijing to house a statue of Lao Tzu. Although it burned down in 1202, in 1224 Genghis Khan ordered the temple to be reconstructed. The temple received its present name during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). The temple was damaged by war or fire and rebuilt several times. Today, it is more or less the same as after a major renovation in 1706.

One revivalist community is the Taoist Restoration Society (TRS), with headquarters in Honolulu, Hawaii. This organization is run by a board of directors, which elects an executive director.

The society conducts projects around the rid of various sorts. They are rebuilding a T’ang Dynasty monastery in China to house Taoist nuns. Also China, a Dongba Training Center is being built as a place to study Buddhism and Taoism.

All Taoist communities offer classes and courses on a regular basis.

Teachings

Taoism was born in China at a time of great intellectual activity. Confucius (551-479 B.C.) also lived at this time and developed his great system of thought. Lao-tse regarded the Tao as the first cause of all reality.

The total quest of the human race is to become one with the Tao. The Tao transcends all matter in the universe. It lies beyond it, yet embodies the forms for the phenomena that are perceived.

This idea is somewhat similar to Plato’s notion of the world of the forms that are the archetypes of lesser realities in the universe.

This Taoist temple is one of China's oldest and largest, and is home to the Taoist Association of China, about 30 white and blue robed monks, and a large collection of Taoist literature.

This Taoist temple is one of China’s oldest and largest, and is home to the Taoist Association of China, about 30 white and blue robed monks, and a large collection of Taoist literature.

Reality, as represented in the macrocosmic universe, finds a correspondence in the specific life forms, particularly human. For example, human beings behave and function, act and react, in much the same way as nature does.

To understand humankind is to understand the structure of the universe (microcosm-macrocosm). Blood, which is the fount of life, circulates throughout the body as the waters of a river flow out from its source.

Lao-tse had a cyclical view of history. He saw that all that flows out returns to its starting point. Life comes from nonlife and returns to nonlife again.

Therefore, true wisdom becomes a matter of attuning oneself to the rhythm of the universe, which corresponds strictly to the rhythm of life.

Five main orifices and organs of the body mirror the “five directions,” or as they are alternately called, the “five parts of the sky” or the “five holy mountains.” They are water, fire, wood, metal, and earth.

Over time Taoism became a religion and LaoTsu is regarded as a deity (there are others) and a belief in striving for immortality.

Over time Taoism became a religion and LaoTsu is regarded as a deity (there are others) and a belief in striving for immortality.

These correspondences and rhythmic movements became characterized by the concepts of yin and yang (dark side-sunny side).

* Yang is the breath that transcends the world and formed the heavens.

* Yin is breath that formed the earth.

All of reality operates according to the principle of yin and yang. The two bipolar forces— good/evil, light/darkness, male/female, and so on (all paired opposites in the universe)—constantly react to and with one another.

Human intervention in these forces displaces universal rhythm and results in an improper balance between them. Civilization is therefore not a positive factor, but one that has upset the balance of yin and yang.

Thus, an agrarian society is seen as being one most in harmony with nature and the universe.

Lao-tse stressed the character of the individual and his ethical conduct and development. The cultivation of virtue is the chief end of humankind.

Yin and Yang : that opposites contain and define each other. "The dual concepts of yin and yang (or heaven and earth) describe two primal opposing but complementary principles or cosmic forces said to be found in all non-static objects and processes in the universe. This seemingly paradoxical concept is the cornerstone of most branches of Chinese philosophy, as well as traditional Chinese medicine"

Yin and Yang : that opposites contain and define each other. “The dual concepts of yin and yang (or heaven and earth) describe two primal opposing but complementary principles or cosmic forces said to be found in all non-static objects and processes in the universe. This seemingly paradoxical concept is the cornerstone of most branches of Chinese philosophy, as well as traditional Chinese medicine”.

The “three jewels” of life are compassion, moderation, and humility. Yet to actively seek virtue is to display a lack of virtue; “the man of superior virtue never acts (wu-wei), and yet there is nothing he leaves undone.”

The deposit of human intervention is always upsetting to the natural course of events. The Taoist would relate that a tree does not interfere in the process of growing or shedding its leaves.

There is no trace of its own activity left visibly behind. “The man of superior virtue is not virtuous, and that is why he has virtue.”

The concept of ch’i (air, breath) is related to yin and yang. Ch’i is the cosmic energy or breath that is given proportionately to every man. The lifelong task is to nurture this energy and to strengthen it.

The martial arts have been greatly influenced by the Taoist concept of ch’i. The expert in the martial arts is able to harness the cosmic energy of ch’i and deprive or empty his or her opponent of the same.

The deities of Taoism include:

Sanching (“the three pure ones”),

* San-kuan (“the three officials,” rulers over the heavens, earth, and subterranean waters),850-9

* San-yuan (“the three primordials,” creator deities), and

* Pa-hsien.

The harsh criticism leveled against Taoism by its opponents has long been that it is a religion that rejects human activity at every level, whether it be political, social, familial, or the like.

At the same time it venerates weakness, passivity, receptivity, uselessness, emptiness, and so on. Taoism rejects all forms of government, elevating as its hegemonic concern the nurturing of a life of bliss and ease. These criticisms are not unjustified.

For human beings to intervene in any way with the laws of the universe is to upset the intricate balance of yin and yang.

Therefore, it is not surprising that the Chinese government in the twentieth century tried to stamp out Taoism because it reinforced laziness, noninvolvement, and apathy—problems that a communist regime is faced with anyway, without having a religion to reinforce such ideals.

There are three monkeys depicted in relief sculptures around the temple. It is believed to be lucky to find all three and rub them with your hand. As a big hint: the first is on the front gateway and the other two are somewhere in the first courtyard.

There are three monkeys depicted in relief sculptures around the temple. It is believed to be lucky to find all three and rub them with your hand. As a big hint: the first is on the front gateway and the other two are somewhere in the first courtyard.

In many ways, the inactivity and passivity of Taoist thought is comparable to the ideals of the Buddhist quest for nirvana through the cultivation of the Middle path, and indeed “Buddhism found no difficulty in adapting it to its own way of life and thought.”

Both religions have been labeled as atheistic in that in their original forms they were philosophies that proffered no particular deities. Taoism became a religion rapidly during the Han dynasty, however, when Lao-tse himself became venerated as a deity.

The basic worldview of Taoism stands in contrast with the worldview of traditional Christianity. The latter makes bold claim to the fact that God is “Father Almighty, maker of heaven and earth” (Apostles’ Creed, Appendix 1).

Moreover, Christianity maintains that far from being an impersonal force, God is personal in Jesus Christ. In addition, Jesus did not merely philosophize about virtuous living; he claimed to be the “only-begotten Son of God” (Nicene Creed, Appendix 1).

In that all of the human race has fallen into sin and active rebellion against the living God, Christianity places central focus on the person and work of Jesus Christ to atone for such sin by dying on a cross, shedding his blood, and subsequently being raised up by God, thereby assuring the forgiveness of sins and eternal life to all who are penitent.

While it is true that both Christianity and Taoism reject such vices as hedonism and materialism, the latter seeks to overcome them through inactivity (wu-wei).

While the former insists on the necessity of activity— God’s activity to forgive for the sake of Jesus Christ and our activity as sinners (e.g., hedonism and materialism) to repent of sin and receive the forgiveness offered through Christ.

Conclusion

In 440 A.D., Taoism became an official cult of the state. It is interesting to note that only one century earlier Christianity was recognized as the “official” religion of the Roman Empire.

Yin and yang

Yin and yang

The basic motifs of Taoist philosophy are found in the many Eastern cults that have migrated to the West. Taoism itself, however, is practiced chiefly on the island of Taiwan, where its greatest concentration of devotees reside.God's Hand

 

 


Jerry 1 - Looking upThis concludes the eight Ancient Cults that I know of.  Today there are hundreds and hundreds of cults, but they all more-or-less are built from other. 

For example, even the Catholic religion came from Christianity.  The Catholics altered the meaning of “faith”, assuming that faith is faith, rather than clinging to the faith of God as HE demands it:850-j-1

But WITHOUT faith it is IMPOSSIBLE to please Him: for he that cometh go God MUST BELIEVE that HE is, and He is a rewarder of them that DILIGENTLY SEEK HIM (Heb 11:6).

To diligently seek God DOES NOT mean that we continue to whine and ask for His forgiveness, it means that we CONTINUE to ALWAYS obey Him.  That we ALWAYS do our best to please Him.

In this context, diligence is not a noun, but always a verb.

If you diligently seek Him He will tell you things; He will guide you, and He will show you things that cannot be scene.

The term “faith” is more-or-less in the realm of imagination or idealism (cf. Heb 11:1).  If you have faith you can take it to a much higher level, which God chooses that you do (cf. Heb 11:6).   This level is communication.

Tomorrow we’re not really going to talk about faith, but communication, let’s go all the way back to 5th century B.C. and look at…

Acts 15
The Council at Jerusalem

1 And certain men which came down from Judaea taught the brethren, and said, Except ye be circumcised after the manner of Moses, ye cannot be saved.

Moses was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the Qur'an, and Baha'i scripture, a religious leader, lawgiver, and prophet, to whom the authorship of the Torah is traditionally attributed.

Moses was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the Qur’an, and Baha’i scripture, a religious leader, lawgiver, and prophet, to whom the authorship of the Torah is traditionally attributed.

2 When therefore Paul and Barnabas had no small dissension and disputation with them, they determined that Paul and Barnabas, and certain other of them, should go up to Jerusalem unto the apostles and elders about this question.

3 And being brought on their way by the church, they passed through Phenice and Samaria, declaring the conversion of the Gentiles: and they caused great joy unto all the brethren.

4 And when they were come to Jerusalem, they were received of the church, and of the apostles and elders, and they declared all things that God had done with them.

5 But there rose up certain of the sect of the Pharisees which believed, saying, That it was needful to circumcise them, and to command them to keep the law of Moses.

6 And the apostles and elders came together for to consider of this matter.

Paul the Apostle (Greek: Παῦλος Paulos, c.5 – c. 67), original name Saul of Tarsus (Greek: Σαῦλος Saulos),[4] was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of Christ to the first-century world.[5] He is generally considered one of the most important figures of the Apostolic Age.[6][7] In the mid-30s to the mid-50s, he founded several churches in Asia Minor and Europe. Paul used his status as both a Jew and a Roman citizen to advantage in his ministry to both Jewish and Roman audiences.

Paul the Apostle was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of Christ to the first-century world. He is generally considered one of the most important figures of the Apostolic Age. In the mid-30s to the mid-50s, he founded several churches in Asia Minor and Europe. Paul used his status as both a Jew and a Roman citizen to advantage in his ministry to both Jewish and Roman audiences.

7 And when there had been much disputing, Peter rose up, and said unto them, Men and brethren, ye know how that a good while ago God made choice among us, that the Gentiles by my mouth should hear the word of the gospel, and believe.

8 And God, which knoweth the hearts, bare them witness, giving them the Holy Ghost, even as he did unto us;

9 And put no difference between us and them, purifying their hearts by faith.

10 Now therefore why tempt ye God, to put a yoke upon the neck of the disciples, which neither our fathers nor we were able to bear?

11 But we believe that through the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ we shall be saved, even as they.

12 Then all the multitude kept silence, and gave audience to Barnabas and Paul, declaring what miracles and wonders God had wrought among the Gentiles by them.

13 And after they had held their peace, James answered, saying, Men and brethren, hearken unto me:

14 Simeon hath declared how God at the first did visit the Gentiles, to take out of them a people for his name.

15 And to this agree the words of the prophets; as it is written,

16 After this I will return, and will build again the tabernacle of David, which is fallen down; and I will build again the ruins thereof, and I will set it up:

17 That the residue of men might seek after the Lord, and all the Gentiles, upon whom my name is called, saith the Lord, who doeth all these things.

18 Known unto God are all his works from the beginning of the world.

Barnabas (Ancient Greek: Βαρναβᾶς), born Joseph, was an early Christian, one of the earliest Christian disciples in Jerusalem.[2][3] According to Acts 4:36 Barnabas was a Cypriot Jew. Named an apostle in Acts 14:14, he and Paul the Apostle undertook missionary journeys together and defended Gentile converts against the Judaizers.[2] They traveled together making more converts (c 45-47), and participated in the Council of Jerusalem (c 50).[4] Barnabas and Paul successfully evangelized among the "God-fearing" Gentiles who attended synagogues in various Hellenized cities of Anatolia.

Barnabas, born Joseph, was an early Christian, one of the earliest Christian disciples in Jerusalem. According to Acts 4:36 Barnabas was a Cypriot Jew. Named an apostle in Acts 14:14, he and Paul the Apostle undertook missionary journeys together and defended Gentile converts against the Judaizers. They traveled together making more converts (c 45-47), and participated in the Council of Jerusalem (c 50). Barnabas and Paul successfully evangelized among the “God-fearing” Gentiles who attended synagogues in various Hellenized cities of Anatolia.

19 Wherefore my sentence is, that we trouble not them, which from among the Gentiles are turned to God:

20 But that we write unto them, that they abstain from pollutions of idols, and from fornication, and from things strangled, and from blood.

21 For Moses of old time hath in every city them that preach him, being read in the synagogues every Sabbath day.

22 Then pleased it the apostles and elders, with the whole church, to send chosen men of their own company to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas; namely, Judas surnamed Barsabas, and Silas, chief men among the brethren:

23 And they wrote letters by them after this manner; The apostles and elders and brethren send greeting unto the brethren which are of the Gentiles in Antioch and Syria and Cilicia:

24 Forasmuch as we have heard, that certain which went out from us have troubled you with words, subverting your souls, saying, Ye must be circumcised, and keep the law: to whom we gave no such commandment:

25 It seemed good unto us, being assembled with one accord, to send chosen men unto you with our beloved Barnabas and Paul,

26 Men that have hazarded their lives for the name of our Lord Jesus Christ.

27 We have sent therefore Judas and Silas, who shall also tell you the same things by mouth.

28 For it seemed good to the Holy Ghost, and to us, to lay upon you no greater burden than these necessary things;

29 That ye abstain from meats offered to idols, and from blood, and from things strangled, and from fornication: from which if ye keep yourselves, ye shall do well. Fare ye well.

30 So when they were dismissed, they came to Antioch: and when they had gathered the multitude together, they delivered the epistle:

The Phoenicians were active merchants who traded throughout the Mediterranean and established colonies as far away as Spain. The best known of these Phoenician colonies was Carthage, one of the most famous cities of antiquity. It was founded on the north coast of Africa by the Phoenicians of Tyre, in 814 B.C. It is from here, that the great Phoenician general "Hannibal" (his name means - Joy of Baal), will launch his historic wars against Rome. Phoenicians are best known, for spreading a system of writing known as the “alphabet” to western civilizations. The Phoenicians were also renowned for their skill in carving ivory.

The Phoenicians were active merchants who traded throughout the Mediterranean and established colonies as far away as Spain. The best known of these Phoenician colonies was Carthage, one of the most famous cities of antiquity. 

 31 Which when they had read, they rejoiced for the consolation.

32 And Judas and Silas, being prophets also themselves, exhorted the brethren with many words, and confirmed them.

33 And after they had tarried there a space, they were let go in peace from the brethren unto the apostles.

34 Notwithstanding it pleased Silas to abide there still.

35 Paul also and Barnabas continued in Antioch, teaching and preaching the word of the Lord, with many others also.

36 And some days after Paul said unto Barnabas, Let us go again and visit our brethren in every city where we have preached the word of the Lord, and see how they do.

37 And Barnabas determined to take with them John, whose surname was Mark.

'It was in the thirty-first year of Asa king of Judah that Omri became king of Israel and he reigned twelve years, six of them in Tirzah. He bought the hill of Samaria from Shemer for two talents of silver and built a city on it which he named Samaria after Shemer the owner of the hill.'

‘It was in the thirty-first year of Asa king of Judah that Omri became king of Israel and he reigned twelve years, six of them in Tirzah. He bought the hill of Samaria from Shemer for two talents of silver and built a city on it which he named Samaria after Shemer the owner of the hill.’

38 But Paul thought not good to take him with them, who departed from them from Pamphylia, and went not with them to the work.

39 And the contention was so sharp between them, that they departed asunder one from the other: and so Barnabas took Mark, and sailed unto Cyprus;

40 And Paul chose Silas, and departed, being recommended by the brethren unto the grace of God.

41 And he went through Syria and Cilicia, confirming the churches.

…Debate and rhetoric in the Ancient World.Jerry 1

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