The Book of Malachi

April 17, 2014

735-Category
Summary of Malachi

735-Malachi, SummaryMalachi is the last book of the Old Testament and is a book of Prophetic Oracle. It is a post-exilic book, meaning it was written after the return from captivity in Babylon.

The prophet Malachi wrote it approximately 430 B.C.

Key personalities include Malachi and the priests. The purpose of this book is that Malachi wrote to ensure that the hearts of the Jews was right and that they were keeping God first in their lives.

Chapters 1-3 – Malachi identified the sins of the Jews, including their priests.

He prophesied that God would send a messenger to prepare the way (this is John the Baptist),

Behold, I will send my messenger, and he shall prepare the way before me: and the Lord, whom ye seek, shall suddenly come to his temple, even the messenger of the covenant, whom ye delight in: behold, he shall come, saith the LORD of hosts. (Mal 3:1).

Finally, he addressed the topic of tithes and offering and that God is stolen from when people disobey it.

Chapter 4 – the last chapter of the Old Testament, Malachi addressed:

Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the LORD (Mal 4:5).

He teaches about the coming judgment when God will set them ablaze in His holy anger. He also gives hope to the faithful with the Book of Remembrance. Those who do the will of God and are righteous will be spared.

Malachi, the last book of the Bible, ends very differently than it began in the book of Genesis. Let us compare them:

Gen 1:1 – “In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.” This was a beautiful and perfect relationship with God.

Mal 4:6 – “And he shall turn the heart of the fathers to the children, and the heart of the children to their fathers, lest I come and smite the earth with a curse”

Consider the large contrast between the very first verse and the very last verse. Afterward, consider that “the sin of mankind” made all the difference.

The Old Testament begins with the magnificent power of God’s creation and ends with fear and separation from God and in need of a Savior. The Old Testament closes with a sad dreary clunk.

Malachi, the Person

735-MalachiMalachi, which means “My messenger,” focuses largely on the corruption of the priests, the neglect of God’s Temple, and the personal sins of the people.

He was sent as a prophet sometime between 450 – 425 BC to Jerusalem at a time when the spiritual zeal of the people was at a low.

The Book of Malachi is the last book of the twelve Minor Prophets, and the last book in the Old Testament.

Malachi ends his book with a prophecy concerning the coming Messiah and his forerunner, John the Baptist (called Elijah).

In this way, the Old Testament ends looking toward what God would do in the New Testament.

The theme of his book is that the people had not learned the lessons that they should have learned from the Babylonian Captivity that had taken place shortly before the time of Malachi.

The people were sent into captivity as punishment for their sins, and now they were doing the same things all over again.

But Malachi finds hope in the coming Messiah who will make all things right because He comes with the power of God.


Timur the Lame and Zechariah 14 – Judah’s King Supreme

April 16, 2014

The words in Black and Maroon is the text from historical/archaeological facts or the numbered scriptures from the Bible.  
Words in Blue are God - Red is Jesus – Green is Jerry.
Jerry is not a scholar, but a very curious 12 year old boy who loves Jesus and likes to research.
If you have any questions you would like to be answered privately or any subject you would like posted please contact me here.

Timur the Lame

With the collapse of the Mongol khanates in China and Persia, the peoples of Asia barely had time to breathe before they faced yet another conqueror.

Timur enjoys a rare moment of rest in the Persian city of Balkh.

Timur enjoys a rare moment of rest in the Persian city of Balkh.

The intelligent, ruthless, limping Timur the Lame (1336-1405), or Tamerlane as Europeans came to call him, was a Turkish Muslim nomad who took inspiration from Genghis Khan.

Seeing his opportunities in the power vacuum that followed the Mongol collapse, he led a growing band of nomad warriors to victory at Samarkand in 1370 and proclaimed himself the inheritor of the Chagatai khanate.

Establishing his capital there, he set out for a lifetime of further conquest, rarely stopping to rest until his death. His court, including some or all of his nine wives, traveled with him.

Timur’s armies moved through eastern Persia, the Near East, and the lands of the Golden Horde in Russia, where he occupied Moscow.

He then turned to India, crossed the Indus in 1398, and sacked Delhi in a brutal attack—-slaughtering, by some accounts, hundreds of thousands of its men, women and children.  He was preparing an invasion in 1405 when he died.

 Samarkand

Samarkand

Like his hero Genghis, Timur had little desire to settle or administer his territories. He was interested in the treasure he could loot from wealthy conquered cities, much of which went to build his capital in Samarkand.

Here, Timur’s bloody victories eventually supported a renaissance of Islamic learning under his successors.


I’d rather he shot then beheaded and sliced up with a sword.  This is the last chapter of Zechariah so tomorrow we will go to the last book of the Old Testament…

Zechariah 14
Judah’s King Supreme

1 Behold, the day of the LORD cometh, and thy spoil shall be divided in the midst of thee.

Jerusalem, Mount of Olives, St. Stephen Greek Orthodox monastery in the Kidron River Valley.

Jerusalem, Mount of Olives, St. Stephen Greek Orthodox monastery in the Kidron River Valley.

2 For I will gather all nations against Jerusalem to battle; and the city shall be taken, and the houses rifled, and the women ravished; and half of the city shall go forth into captivity, and the residue of the people shall not be cut off from the city.

3 Then shall the LORD go forth, and fight against those nations, as when he fought in the day of battle.

4 And his feet shall stand in that day upon the mount of Olives, which is before Jerusalem on the east, and the mount of Olives shall cleave in the midst thereof toward the east and toward the west, and there shall be a very great valley; and half of the mountain shall remove toward the north, and half of it toward the south.

5 And ye shall flee to the valley of the mountains; for the valley of the mountains shall reach unto Azal: yea, ye shall flee, like as ye fled from before the earthquake in the days of Uzziah king of Judah: and the LORD my God shall come, and all the saints with thee.

“Azal” – the name of a place east of Jerusalem, marking the eastern end of the newly formed valley.  The location is unknown.

6 And it shall come to pass in that day, that the light shall not be clear, nor dark:

Ancient Rimmon

Ancient Rimmon

7 But it shall be one day which shall be known to the LORD, not day, nor night: but it shall come to pass, that at evening time it shall be light.

8 And it shall be in that day, that living waters shall go out from Jerusalem; half of them toward the former sea, and half of them toward the hinder sea: in summer and in winter shall it be.

9 And the LORD shall be king over all the earth: in that day shall there be one LORD, and his name one.

“The LORD shall be king over all he earth” – Jesus Christ.

10 All the land shall be turned as a plain from Geba to Rimmon south of Jerusalem: and it shall be lifted up, and inhabited in her place, from Benjamin’s gate unto the place of the first gate, unto the corner gate, and from the tower of Hananeel unto the king’s winepresses.

“Geba” – about six miles north-northeast of Jerusalem at the northern boundary of Judah.

“Rimmon” – also called En Rimmon, is about 35 miles south-southwest of Jerusalem, where the hill country of Judah slopes away into the Negev.

“King’s winepresses” – just south of the city.  Thus the whole city in included.

11 And men shall dwell in it, and there shall be no more utter destruction; but Jerusalem shall be safely inhabited.

GEBA A town on the Northeast boundary of the territory of Benjamin, given to the Levites.  It stood on the northern frontier of the kingdom of Judah, Geba and Beersheba marking respectively the northern and southern limits.  In 2 Samuel 5:25 "Geba" should be altered to "Gibeon," which stands in the corresponding passage.  In Judges 20:10, 33 1 Samuel 13:3, 16, the Hebrew reads "Geba," the translation "Gibeah" being due to confusion of the two names.

GEBA
A town on the Northeast boundary of the territory of Benjamin, given to the Levites.
It stood on the northern frontier of the kingdom of Judah, Geba and Beersheba marking respectively the northern and southern limits.
In 2 Samuel 5:25 “Geba” should be altered to “Gibeon,” which stands in the corresponding passage.
In Judges 20:10, 33 1 Samuel 13:3, 16, the Hebrew reads “Geba,” the translation “Gibeah” being due to confusion of the two names.

12 And this shall be the plague wherewith the LORD will smite all the people that have fought against Jerusalem; Their flesh shall consume away while they stand upon their feet, and their eyes shall consume away in their holes, and their tongue shall consume away in their mouth.

13 And it shall come to pass in that day, that a great tumult from the LORD shall be among them; and they shall lay hold every one on the hand of his neighbour, and his hand shall rise up against the hand of his neighbour.

14 And Judah also shall fight at Jerusalem; and the wealth of all the heathen round about shall be gathered together, gold, and silver, and apparel, in great abundance.

15 And so shall be the plague of the horse, of the mule, of the camel, and of the ass, and of all the beasts that shall be in these tents, as this plague.

16 And it shall come to pass, that every one that is left of all the nations which came against Jerusalem shall even go up from year to year to worship the King, the LORD of hosts, and to keep the feast of tabernacles.

“Feast of tabernacles” – of the three great pilgrimage festivals perhaps tabernacles was selected as the one for representatives of the various Gentile nations because it was the last and greatest festival of the Hebrew calendar.

17 And it shall be, that whoso will not come up of all the families of the earth unto Jerusalem to worship the King, the LORD of hosts, even upon them shall be no rain.

18 And if the family of Egypt go not up, and come not, that have no rain; there shall be the plague, wherewith the LORD will smite the heathen that come not up to keep the feast of tabernacles.

Foundation of ancient temple to Baal Berith in ancient  Shechem.

Foundation of ancient temple to
Baal Berith in ancient Shechem.

19 This shall be the punishment of Egypt, and the punishment of all nations that come not up to keep the feast of tabernacles.

20 In that day shall there be upon the bells of the horses, HOLINESS UNTO THE LORD; and the pots in the LORD’S house shall be like the bowls before the altar.

21 Yea, every pot in Jerusalem and in Judah shall be holiness unto the LORD of hosts: and all they that sacrifice shall come and take of them, and see the therein: and in that day there shall be no more the Canaanite in the house of the LORD of hosts.


…the Book of Malachi.


Joseph Stalin and the Tatars and Zechariah 13 – Israel Chastened

April 15, 2014

The words in Black and Maroon is the text from historical/archaeological facts or the numbered scriptures from the Bible.  
Words in Blue are God - Red is Jesus – Green is Jerry.
Jerry is not a scholar, but a very curious 12 year old boy who loves Jesus and likes to research.
If you have any questions you would like to be answered privately or any subject you would like posted please contact me here.

The Tatars after Joseph Stalin

In 1944, on the orders of Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin, the entire population of Tatars on the Crimean Peninsula was rounded up and sent to the deserts of Soviet Central Asia. Nearly 70 years after that wartime atrocity, the Tatar population is still working to reassert itself in its homeland.

In the extreme southern part of Ukraine the Crimean peninsula juts into the Black Sea. It is almost surrounded by water because the Perekop Isthmus that joins it to the mainland is only 5 miles (8 kilometers) wide. From the main peninsula the narrow Kerch' peninsula stretches eastward.

In the extreme southern part of Ukraine the Crimean peninsula juts into the Black Sea. It is almost surrounded by water because the Perekop Isthmus that joins it to the mainland is only 5 miles (8 kilometers) wide. From the main peninsula the narrow Kerch’ peninsula stretches eastward.

Eighty-two-year-old Mullah Ziyatdin was just 12 when he and his family were rousted in the middle of the night, ordered to gather a few belongings and shoved into freight cars for a nightmarish three-week journey. The freight-car doors were opened every few days.

“When we’d get to a station, they would dump the bodies of people who had died along the way, he recalls.

The conditions were equally brutal when the train journey ended.

“When we got there, there wasn’t enough food. Many people died — of heat, cold, hunger, disease,” Ziyatdin recalls. “Of 20 families with us, only four survived.

Today, the mullah prays at a new two-story mosque in the farming village of Chistopolye, near the eastern end of Crimea.

Accused Of Collaboration

The Crimean Peninsula is an area about the size of Massachusetts, jutting into the Black Sea. It’s almost an island, only thinly connected to the mainland. 

Over the centuries, it’s been part of the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and now Ukraine, but before that, it belonged to the Crimean Tatars, descendants of the golden horde of Genghis Khan.

Mullah Ziyatdin, 82, was 12 when his family was forced to board freight cars that took them to the deserts of Uzbekistan.

Mullah Ziyatdin, 82, was 12 when his family was forced to board freight cars that took them to the deserts of Uzbekistan.

Stalin accused the Tatars of collaborating with the Nazis who occupied the Crimean Peninsula for nearly three years. This, despite the fact that tens of thousands of Tatar men served in the Soviet Army, fighting the Germans.

When Stalin’s secret-police troops rounded up Tatars in 1944, their population consisted of nearly 200,000 women, children and old people.

Najiye Batalova was 6 when her family was deported. She has worked most of her life as a journalist and historian of the event. In all, she says, about 46 percent of the exiles died from the harsh conditions. Many survivors suffered what amounted to slave labor in the cotton fields of Uzbekistan.

The Crimean Tatars weren’t the only people subject to mass deportations under Stalin’s rule. Other nationalities, including Chechens, Ingush and others from the Black Sea and North Caucasus region were also deported.

Return To Crimea

It wasn’t until after Stalin’s death in 1953 that the Soviet government withdrew the charge of treason against the Tatar people, freeing them from the labor camps.

Some nationalities, such as the Chechens, were allowed to return to their regions in the 1950s, but it wasn’t until the late 1980s that the Crimean Tatars were finally able to start coming home.

Batalova’s family settled in the Crimean port city of Kerch. Now 74, she leads the way through a Tatar settlement, a jumble of small lots and partly finished houses on the outskirts of the city.

Residents say the city gave them land on which to build houses, but in more than 20 years, has never provided basic services, such as roads or running water. Still, an estimated 250,000 Tatars have now returned to Crimea, and they’re organizing to claim what they see as their rights.

Kerch (Ukrainian: Керч, Russian: Керчь, Crimean Tatar: Keriç, Old East Slavic: Кърчевъ, Ancient Greek: Παντικάπαιον Pantikapaion, Turkish: Kerç) is a city on the Kerch Peninsula of eastern Crimea, an important industrial, transport and tourist centre of Ukraine. Kerch was founded 2600 years ago, is considered one of the most ancient cities in Ukraine.

Kerch (Ukrainian: Керч, Russian: Керчь, Crimean Tatar: Keriç, Old East Slavic: Кърчевъ, Ancient Greek: Παντικάπαιον Pantikapaion, Turkish: Kerç) is a city on the Kerch Peninsula of eastern Crimea, an important industrial, transport and tourist centre of Ukraine. Kerch was founded 2600 years ago, is considered one of the most ancient cities in Ukraine.

At the World Congress of Crimean Tatars in the regional capital, Simferopol, hundreds of delegates gather to talk about a political agenda. It’s indicative of the Tatars’ new status that the session begins with the playing of the Ukrainian national anthem, followed by the Tatar anthem.

Asan Egizov, a 26-year-old political activist, says the Tatars’ loyalty is firmly with Ukraine, of which Crimea is now a part, but they want changes on the local level.

Egizov, a first-time delegate to the Congress, says the main problem is that the Ukrainian government considers the Tatars to be a national minority “but we are not a national minority. We are the indigenous people from here. We are the owners of the Crimean Peninsula.”

The idea is common among young Tatars like Egizov, who was a child when his parents returned. He wants nothing less than a full restoration of Tatar culture in Crimea, including use of Tatar as the language of official business.

Given that Tatars only make up about 15 percent of a population that is overwhelmingly composed of Russian-speaking Ukrainians, that could take a long time.

But Egizov points out that the Tatars have a significantly higher birthrate than that of most other Ukrainians, and says that in another generation, they could have both demographic and political clout.


I want to close this study on the Mongols with a very intelligent and ruthless fan of Genghis Khan…

Zechariah 13
Israel Chastened

1 In that day there shall be a fountain opened to the house of David and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem for sin and for uncleanness.

A 3,000-year-old defensive wall possibly built by King Solomon has been unearthed in Jerusalem, according to the Israeli archaeologist who led the excavation. The discovery appears to validate a Bible passage, she says. The tenth-century B.C. wall is 230 feet (70 meters) long and about 6 meters (20 feet) tall. It stands along what was then the edge of Jerusalem—between the Temple Mount, still Jerusalem's paramount landmark, and the ancient City of David, today a modern-day Arab neighborhood called Silwan.

A 3,000-year-old defensive wall possibly built by King Solomon has been unearthed in Jerusalem, according to the Israeli archaeologist who led the excavation. The discovery appears to validate a Bible passage, she says.
The tenth-century B.C. wall is 230 feet (70 meters) long and about 6 meters (20 feet) tall. It stands along what was then the edge of Jerusalem—between the Temple Mount, still Jerusalem’s paramount landmark, and the ancient City of David, today a modern-day Arab neighborhood called Silwan.

2 And it shall come to pass in that day, saith the LORD of hosts, that I will cut off the names of the idols out of the land, and they shall no more be remembered: and also I will cause the prophets and the unclean spirit to pass out of the land.

3 And it shall come to pass, that when any shall yet prophesy, then his father and his mother that begat him shall say unto him, Thou shalt not live; for thou speakest lies in the name of the LORD: and his father and his mother that begat him shall thrust him through when he prophesieth.

4 And it shall come to pass in that day, that the prophets shall be ashamed every one of his vision, when he hath prophesied; neither shall they wear a rough garment to deceive:

13:4-6 – because of the stern measures just mentioned, a false prophet will be reluctant to identify himself as such and will be evasive in his responses to interrogation.  To help conceal his true identity, he will not wear a “rough garment’, such as Elijah wore. 

Instead, to avoid the death penalty he’ll deny being a prophet and will claim to have been a farmer since his youth.  And if a suspicious person notices marks on his body and inquires about them he’ll claim he received them in a scuffle with friends (or perhaps as discipline from his parents during childhood).

Apparently the accuser suspects that the false prophet’s wounds were self-inflicted to arouse his prophetic ecstasy in idolatrous rites.

This photograph shows the ruins from ancient Jerusalem. The foundation of a wall from these ruins dates back to ca 1800 B.C. Jerusalem has likely been occupied for over 4,000 years, and these ruins attest to the antiquity of Zion. David captured the city, which would have included these ruins, around 1000 B.C.

This photograph shows the ruins from ancient Jerusalem. The foundation of a wall from these ruins dates back to ca 1800 B.C. Jerusalem has likely been occupied for over 4,000 years, and these ruins attest to the antiquity of Zion. David captured the city, which would have included these ruins, around 1000 B.C.

5 But he shall say, I am no prophet, I am an husbandman; for man taught me to keep cattle from my youth.

6 And one shall say unto him, What are these wounds in thine hands? Then he shall answer, Those with which I was wounded in the house of my friends.

7 Awake, O sword, against my shepherd, and against the man that is my fellow, saith the LORD of hosts: smite the shepherd, and the sheep shall be scattered: and I will turn mine hand upon the little ones.

8 And it shall come to pass, that in all the land, saith the LORD, two parts therein shall be cut off and die; but the third shall be left therein.

9 And I will bring the third part through the fire, and will refine them as silver is refined, and will try them as gold is tried: they shall call on my name, and I will hear them: I will say, It is my people: and they shall say, The LORD is my God.


…Timur the Lame.


The Tatars and Zechariah 12 – The Compassion of Jerusalem

April 14, 2014

The words in Black and Maroon is the text from historical/archaeological facts or the numbered scriptures from the Bible.  
Words in Blue are God - Red is Jesus – Green is Jerry.
Jerry is not a scholar, but a very curious 12 year old boy who loves Jesus and likes to research.
If you have any questions you would like to be answered privately or any subject you would like posted please contact me here.

The Tatars

Vanquished, they ask no favor and vanquishing, they show no compassion.

Modern Tatars prayed in a temporary mosque in Ukraine.

Modern Tatars prayed in a temporary mosque in Ukraine.

In this passage from 1243, Richard Hakluty described the Tatars, the Turkic/Mongol nomads who threatened Europe from Russia.

Tatars were originally a collection of Turkic nomadic tribes conquered and partially assimilated by the Mongols in early 13th century. As the Golden Horde, they dominated western Russia for a time but then dissolved into separate khanates in the 14th century.

Unlike other Mongol peoples, they settled into stable, prosperous agricultural and trading societies.

Crimean Tatars were persecuted and displaced under Joseph Stalin, but began to return to their homelands in the 1980s.

Today, more than two million Tatars live in Siberia; in western Russian republics, including Tatarstan; and  in Turkey.

Mongolian Women

The wide-ranging domestic and military skills of Mongol women impressed outsiders. According to Giovanni DiPlano Carpini, an envoy from Pope Innocent IV:

Descendants of the Mongols, such as this young oman in traditional dress, form a rapidly growing youthful society in modern-day Mongolia.

Descendants of the Mongols, such as this young oman in traditional dress, form a rapidly growing youthful society in modern-day Mongolia.

“Girls and women ride and gallop as skillfully as men. We even saw them carrying quivers and bows, and the women can ride horses for as long as the men; they have shorter stirrups, handle horses very well, and mind all the property.

The . . . women make everything: skin clothes, shoes, leggings, and everything made of leather. They drive carts and repair them, they load camels, and are quick and vigorous in all their tasks. They all wear trousers, and some of them shoot just like men.

Marco Polo noted: “The women attend to their trading concerns, buy and sell, and provide everything necessary for their husbands and their families.”

Women accompanied armies and sometimes fought in the rear guard. They could own property and were allowed to divorce their husbands.

Mongol men could have many wives, if they could afford them— one reason that so many descendants of the khans are spread through the world today— but the first wife retained seniority and, in the case of royal wives, often had significant authority.


Wow, seems like the Mongolian women were treated better than anywhere else in the world, especially in Iraq, Afghanistan and that area.  Probably even better than in the United States. 

Seems that they were treated equally, which I think 732-jis only fair, in most cases that is.  What I mean is that I don’t think women should be allowed to fight in wars or be police officers simply because no matter how mean they may be, they don’t have the hatred inside them to kill like men do. 

You didn’t create women to be like men, and vice versa.  Of course, I don’t know about other countries, but I know in the United States we have way to many women.  There are a lot of women that act like men.  But compared to them, there has to be at least twice as many men that look and act like women.  

That’s against You and should be outlawed.  Of course this is no surprise to You and You even warned us what would happen to people that disobey You:732-jj.jpg

Wherefore God also gave them up to uncleanness through the lusts of their own hearts, to dishonor their own bodies between themselves.

Who changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshiped and served the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed forever .  Amen.

For this Cause God gave them up unto vile affections: for even their women did change the natural use into that which is against nature:

And likewise also the men, leaving the natural use of the woman, burned in their lust one toward another; men with men working that which is unseemly, and receiving in themselves that recompense of their error which was meet.732-jjj

And even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not convenient;

But filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness: full of envy, murder, debate, deceit, malignity; whisperers,

Backbiters, haters of God, despiteful, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents,732-jjjj

Without understanding, covenant-breakers without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful:

Who knowing the judgment of God, that they which commit such things are worthy of death, not only do the same, but have pleasure in them that do them (Rom 1:24-32).

Okay, back to where we were.  We’ve heard about Genghis Khan, the soldiers, the women, the homosexuals/lesbians but I would like to look back at the Tatars and see exactly what…

Zechariah 12
The Compassion of Jerusalem

1 The burden of the word of the LORD for Israel, saith the LORD, which stretcheth forth the heavens, and layeth the foundation of the earth, and formeth the spirit of man within him.

Jerusalem stone (Arabic: حجر القدس ; Hebrew: אבן ירושלמית ) is a name applied to various types of pale limestone, dolomite and dolomitic limestone, common in and around Jerusalem that have been used in building since ancient times.[1] One of these limestones, meleke, has been used in many of the region's most celebrated structures, including the Western Wall. Jerusalem stone continues to be used in construction and incorporated in Jewish ceremonial art such as menorahs and seder plates. In 2000, there were 650 stone-cutting enterprises run by Palestinians in the West Bank, producing a varied range of pink, sand, golden, and off-white bricks and tiles.

Jerusalem stone (Arabic: حجر القدس ; Hebrew: אבן ירושלמית ) is a name applied to various types of pale limestone, dolomite and dolomitic limestone, common in and around Jerusalem that have been used in building since ancient times.[1] One of these limestones, meleke, has been used in many of the region’s most celebrated structures, including the Western Wall.
Jerusalem stone continues to be used in construction and incorporated in Jewish ceremonial art such as menorahs and seder plates. In 2000, there were 650 stone-cutting enterprises run by Palestinians in the West Bank, producing a varied range of pink, sand, golden, and off-white bricks and tiles.

12:1-14:21 – this second oracle in Part II of the book revolves around two scenes: the final siege of Jerusalem, and the Messiah’s return to defeat Israel’s enemies and establish His kingdom.

“The LORD, which stretcheth…layeth…formeth” – this description of the Lord’s creative power shows that He is able to perform what He predicts; it also strengthens the royal and sovereign authority of the massage.

2 Behold, I will make Jerusalem a cup of trembling unto all the people round about, when they shall be in the siege both against Judah and against Jerusalem.

3 And in that day will I make Jerusalem a burdensome stone for all people: all that burden themselves with it shall be cut in pieces, though all the people of the earth be gathered together against it.

4 In that day, saith the LORD, I will smite every horse with astonishment, and his rider with madness: and I will open mine eyes upon the house of Judah, and will smite every horse of the people with blindness.

“Astonishment…madness…blindness” – listed in Deut 28:28 among Israel’s curses for disobeying the stipulations of the covenant.  Now these curses are turned against Israel’s enemies.

5 And the governors of Judah shall say in their heart, The inhabitants of Jerusalem shall be my strength in the LORD of hosts their God.

6 In that day will I make the governors of Judah like an hearth of fire among the wood, and like a torch of fire in a sheaf; and they shall devour all the people round about, on the right hand and on the left: and Jerusalem shall be inhabited again in her own place, even in Jerusalem.

7 The LORD also shall save the tents of Judah first, that the glory of the house of David and the glory of the inhabitants of Jerusalem do not magnify themselves against Judah.

8 In that day shall the LORD defend the inhabitants of Jerusalem; and he that is feeble among them at that day shall be as David; and the house of David shall be as God, as the angel of the LORD before them.

Jerusalem - Israeli archaeologists say they have uncovered new sections of Jerusalem’s ancient walls, continuing a project started more than a century ago.

Jerusalem – Israeli archaeologists say they have uncovered new sections of Jerusalem’s ancient walls, continuing a project started more than a century ago.

9 And it shall come to pass in that day, that I will seek to destroy all the nations that come against Jerusalem.

10 And I will pour upon the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and of supplications: and they shall look upon me whom they have pierced, and they shall mourn for him, as one mourneth for his only son, and shall be in bitterness for him, as one that is in bitterness for his firstborn.

11 In that day shall there be a great mourning in Jerusalem, as the mourning of Hadadrimmon in the valley of Megiddon.

“Hadadrimmon” – the name of either (1) a place near Megiddo, where the people mourned the death of King Josiah for the pain of Megiddo or (2) a Semitic storm god whose name means “Hadad the thunder er” in Babylonian.

12 And the land shall mourn, every family apart; the family of the house of David apart, and their wives apart; the family of the house of Nathan apart, and their wives apart;

“Nathan” – King David’s son.

13 The family of the house of Levi apart, and their wives apart; the family of Shimei apart, and their wives apart;

The 16th Century wall of Jerusalem The sandstone walls of the Old City of Jerusalem are known for their spectacular rosy-golden glow as the sun rises at dawn, and they exhibit the same beauty in the last hours of daylight just prior to sunset.  The present city wall was constructed in 1538 AD by the Ottoman ruler Suleiman the Magnificent above the ruins of the old 1st century walls that stood when Jesus lived.  Over the centuries since the 16th century wall was built, eleven gates have guarded the entrances to the nearly three-mile long fortified perimeter of the Old City of Jerusalem and to the most sacred area of the city, Jerusalem's Temple Mount.  Today only seven of these gates are opened.

The 16th Century wall of Jerusalem
The sandstone walls of the Old City of Jerusalem are known for their spectacular rosy-golden glow as the sun rises at dawn, and they exhibit the same beauty in the last hours of daylight just prior to sunset. The present city wall was constructed in 1538 AD by the Ottoman ruler Suleiman the Magnificent above the ruins of the old 1st century walls that stood when Jesus lived. Over the centuries since the 16th century wall was built, eleven gates have guarded the entrances to the nearly three-mile long fortified perimeter of the Old City of Jerusalem and to the most sacred area of the city, Jerusalem’s Temple Mount. Today only seven of these gates are opened.

“Family Shimei” – Shimei was the son of Gershon, the son of Levi (Num 3:17-18, 21).  The repentance and mourning are led, then by the civil and religious leaders.

14 All the families that remain, every family apart, and their wives apart.


…Joseph Stalin did to them?


The Tomb of Genghis Khan and Zechariah 11 – The Rejection of the King

April 13, 2014

The words in Black and Maroon is the text from historical/archaeological facts or the numbered scriptures from the Bible.   Words in Blue are God - Red is Jesus – Green is Jerry. Jerry is not a scholar, but a very curious 12 year old boy who loves Jesus and likes to research. If you have any questions you would like to be answered privately or any subject you would like posted please contact me here.

The Tomb of Genghis Khan

In life he was a world-shaking conqueror, but in death he is a mystery.  Genghis Khan died in 1227, but this tomb has never been found.  Most researchers believe his body was returned to his Mongolian homeland.

Researcher Albert Yu-Min Lin surveys the Mongolian wilderness with a  native Mongolian.

Researcher Albert Yu-Min Lin surveys the Mongolian wilderness with a native Mongolian.

However, his retainers kept the location a secret, reputedly trampling traces of the burial under their houses’ hooves.  More recently, Russian occupiers kept the area off-limits.

In 2008, University of California San Diego research Albert Yu-Min Lin restarted the search using a new, noninvasive approach. 

Employing data-mining algorithms to scan satellite maps of northeastern Mongolia, Lin and his team are looking for unusual geometric shapes and other clues in the landscape in hopes of finding the tomb – without disturbing the sacred Mongolian land.

When the name Genghis Khan enters a conversation then of course you can only think of Mongolia, but I often hear about Tatars also.  So…

Zechariah 11 The Rejection of the King

1 Open thy doors, O Lebanon, that the fire may devour thy cedars.

Lebanese Republic is located in the Middle East of the Asian Continent, with a population of 4,140,289, making it the 126th  largest national population. Its capital and largest city is Beirut with a total population of 1,900,000. The country  encompasses 10,400 square kilometers making it the 170th largest country in total area. It shares boundaries with Syria,  Israel and Mediterranean Sea.

Lebanese Republic is located in the Middle East of the Asian Continent, with a population of 4,140,289, making it the 126th
largest national population. Its capital and largest city is Beirut with a total population of 1,900,000. The country
encompasses 10,400 square kilometers making it the 170th largest country in total area. It shares boundaries with Syria,
Israel and Mediterranean Sea.

11:1-3 – some interpret this brief poem as a taunt song related to the lament that will be sung over the destruction of the nations’ power and arrogance, represented by the cedar, the pine and the oak.

Their kings are represented by the shepherds and the lions.  Understood in this way, vv. 1-3 would provide the conclusion to the preceding section. 

Other interpreters, without denying the presence of figurative language, see the piece more literally as a description of the devastation of Syro-Palestine due to the rejection of the Messianic Good Shepherd.  Verses 1-3 would then furnish the introduction to the next section.

The geography of the text – Lebanon, Bashan and Jordan – would seem to favor this interpretation.  Part of the fulfillment would be the destruction and further subjugation of the area by the Romans, including the fall of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. and of Masada in 73.

Understood in this way, the passage is in sharp contrast with chapter 10 and its prediction of Israel’s full deliverance and restoration to the coven ant land.  Now the scene is one of desolation for the land, followed by the threat of judgment and disaster for both land and people.

2 Howl, fir tree; for the cedar is fallen; because the mighty are spoiled: howl, O ye oaks of Bashan; for the forest of the vintage is come down.

“Bashan” – the Israelites took this region from the Amorite king, Og, at the time of the conquest of Canaan.  It was allotted to the half-tribe of Manasseh.

3 There is a voice of the howling of the shepherds; for their glory is spoiled: a voice of the roaring of young lions; for the pride of Jordan is spoiled.

Biblical Bashan Dolmens Hundreds of dolmens have been found in the Golan Heights. Used for burial in the basalt areas where grave digging is difficult, dolmens were used for burial during both the Early Bronze I and Intermediate Bronze periods. The dolmen was most likely intended as a burial chamber for the chief of a clan, or another member of the nomadic elite. A dolmen is constructed of two large vertical stone slabs capped by a horizontal stone, which can weigh up to 30 tons.

Biblical Bashan
Dolmens
Hundreds of dolmens have been found in the Golan Heights. Used for burial in the basalt areas where grave digging is difficult, dolmens were used for burial during both the Early Bronze I and Intermediate Bronze periods. The dolmen was most likely intended as a burial chamber for the chief of a clan, or another member of the nomadic elite. A dolmen is constructed of two large vertical stone slabs capped by a horizontal stone, which can weigh up to 30 tons.

4 Thus saith the LORD my God; Feed the flock of the slaughter;

11:4-14 – the reason for the judgment on Israel in vv. 1-3 is now given, namely, the people’s rejection of the Messianic Shepherd-King (as royal figure) is rejected.

5 Whose possessors slay them, and hold themselves not guilty: and they that sell them say, Blessed be the LORD; for I am rich: and their own shepherds pity them not.

“Whose possessors” – the sheep (the Jews) are bought as slaves by outsiders.  Part of the fulfillment came in 70 A.D. and the following years.

6 For I will no more pity the inhabitants of the land, saith the LORD: but, lo, I will deliver the men every one into his neighbor’s hand, and into the hand of his king: and they shall smite the land, and out of their hand I will not deliver them.

7 And I will feed the flock of slaughter, even you, O poor of the flock. And I took unto me two staves; the one I called Beauty, and the other I called Bands; and I fed the flock.

8 Three shepherds also I cut off in one month; and my soul lothed them, and their soul also abhorred me.

9 Then said I, I will not feed you: that that dieth, let it die; and that that is to be cut off, let it be cut off; and let the rest eat every one the flesh of another.

10 And I took my staff, even Beauty, and cut it asunder, that I might break my covenant which I had made with all the people.

Nimrod's Fortress Known in Arabic as Subebe (from the Crusader name L’Asibebe), this English name for the castle mistakenly associates it with Nimrod, an ancient figure of great strength mentioned in Genesis 10:8-9. This is one of the castles that was built by the Muslims, but it changed hands several times in the 12th century. The fortress was strengthened in the 13th century and most remains visible today are from that period. The mountain is over 400 m (1,300 ft) long, and in places its width reaches 150 m (490 ft). The summit rises to an elevation of 800 m (2,600 ft) above sea level. The castle is also known as the Citadel of the Mosquitoes since swarms tend to rise up at times and cover the entire area.

Nimrod’s Fortress
Nimrod began the work on the Tower of Babel.  Known in Arabic as Subebe (from the Crusader name L’Asibebe), this English name for the castle mistakenly associates it with Nimrod, an ancient figure of great strength mentioned in Genesis 10:8-9. This is one of the castles that was built by the Muslims, but it changed hands several times in the 12th century. The fortress was strengthened in the 13th century and most remains visible today are from that period. The mountain is over 400 m (1,300 ft) long, and in places its width reaches 150 m (490 ft). The summit rises to an elevation of 800 m (2,600 ft) above sea level. The castle is also known as the Citadel of the Mosquitoes since swarms tend to rise up at times and cover the entire area.

11 And it was broken in that day: and so the poor of the flock that waited upon me knew that it was the word of the LORD.

12 And I said unto them, If ye think good, give me my price; and if not, forbear. So they weighed for my price thirty pieces of silver.

13 And the LORD said unto me, Cast it unto the potter: a goodly price that I was prised at of them. And I took the thirty pieces of silver, and cast them to the potter in the house of the LORD.

14 Then I cut asunder mine other staff, even Bands, that I might break the brotherhood between Judah and Israel.

15 And the LORD said unto me, Take unto thee yet the instruments of a foolish shepherd.

16 For, lo, I will raise up a shepherd in the land, which shall not visit those that be cut off, neither shall seek the young one, nor heal that that is broken, nor feed that that standeth still: but he shall eat the flesh of the fat, and tear their claws in pieces.

17 Woe to the idol shepherd that leaveth the flock! the sword shall be upon his arm, and upon his right eye: his arm shall be clean dried up, and his right eye shall be utterly darkened.

.what or who are the Tatars and how were the Mongolian women treated?


The Mongol Army and Zechariah 10 –The Reemption of God’s People

April 12, 2014

The words in Black and Maroon is the text from historical/archaeological facts or the numbered scriptures from the Bible.   Words in Blue are God - Red is Jesus – Green is Jerry. Jerry is not a scholar, but a very curious 12 year old boy who loves Jesus and likes to research. If you have any questions you would like to be answered privately or any subject you would like posted please contact me here.

The Mongol Army

The Mongol army was feared from Europe to China, and with good reason. The finest horsemen in the world, they were smart, tricky, and brutal. From infancy, Mongol children were taught to ride, to hunt, and eventually to shoot backward while standing in their stirrups.

Using techniques learned from Chinese captives, the Mongols besiege a Chinese fortress.

Using techniques learned from Chinese captives, the Mongols besiege a Chinese fortress.

Young men participated in a great hunt in the fall, where they were organized into military units and judged on their prowess. The best hunters became elite soldiers.

On the move, the cavalry formed immense columns, signaling from front to back with flags and fires. As nomads, they knew how to travel rapidly and lightly, but they were well armed and armored: each soldier had:

A double-arched compound bow, A shield, A lasso,  A dagger, and Some also carried swords, javelins, battle-axes, or maces.

Their beautifully balanced three-foot- long arrows were sometimes dipped in poison or salt to inflict extra pain. Quilted leather or mail formed their armor, and they carried hooks to snag the enemy’s mail and drag the wearer to the ground.

The Mongols of China, according to Marco Polo, also wore a mirror over their hearts to deflect evil.

Genghis Khan holds a quiver of arrows.

Genghis Khan holds a quiver of arrows.

The Mongols’ scouts and spies told of weaknesses in the enemy’s armament and walled cities. (The Mongols made their arrows shorter than Chinese arrows, so they couldn’t be used with Chinese bows; this prevented the Chinese from reusing Mongol arrows from the battlefield.)

Accompanying the fast-moving army were the support forces: wagons with food and fodder, foreign technicians to repair siege machines, and women whose duties included slitting the throats of downed enemies.

Archaeologists believe they may have found Alexander the Great’s tomb.  It’s believed that he was going to be buried in at Aegae, modern Vergina or in Siwa Oasis. 

Yet, while transferringthe body it was hijacked and was in initially buried in Memphis.

The structure measures an impressive 500 metres long and three metres high, which archaeologists believe could contain a royal grave.

The structure measures an impressive 500 metres long and three metres high, which archaeologists believe could contain a royal grave.

In the late 4th or early 3rd century B.C. Alexander’s body was transferred from Memphis to Alexandria, where it was reburied.

What about…

Zechariah 10 The Redemption of God’s People

1 Ask ye of the LORD rain in the time of the latter rain; so the LORD shall make bright clouds, and give them showers of rain, to every one grass in the field.

“The LORD…give them showers…grass” – the Lord, not the Canaanite god, Baal, is the one who controls the weather and the rain, giving life and fertility to the land.  Therefore, God’s people are to pray to and trust in Him.

2 For the idols have spoken vanity, and the diviners have seen a lie, and have told false dreams; they comfort in vain: therefore they went their way as a flock, they were troubled, because there was no shepherd.730-a

“Idols” – Hebrew teraphim, household gods.  They were used for divination during the period of the judges.  Included among false prophets, they were the occult counterpart to true prophets.

“There was no shepherd” – spiritual leadership is missing.

3 Mine anger was kindled against the shepherds, and I punished the goats: for the LORD of hosts hath visited his flock the house of Judah, and hath made them as his goodly horse in the battle.

4 Out of him came forth the corner, out of him the nail, out of him the battle bow, out of him every oppressor together.

5 And they shall be as mighty men, which tread down their enemies in the mire of the streets in the battle: and they shall fight, because the LORD is with them, and the riders on horses shall be confounded.

In ancient Egypt mummification was a means of preserving a body whose survival in a recognizable form was essential for an expected life after death. The Removal of Internal Organs The period spent on preparing the body for burial was usually seventy days. Forty days of these were devoted to drying out the dead body. As soon as possible after death, the corpse was handed over to the embalmers. Their task, and the first step in the ancient Egyptian mummification process, was to remove the brain and internal organs immediately, which otherwise would rot rapidly. The brain was usually removed through the nostrils. The heart, however, as the seat of understanding, was regularly left in place. Although the removal of internal organs was essential for a successful mummification, the Egyptian embalmers considered their careful preservation of the body itself to be of equal importance. To dehydrate the body efficiently, dissolve body fats, and make the skin lithe, dry soda crystals were used as a part of the ancient Egypt mummification process. The internal organs were also treated with soda - but separately from the body - and then placed in four canopic jars.

In ancient Egypt mummification was a means of preserving a body whose survival in a recognizable form was essential for an expected life after death.
The Removal of Internal Organs
The period spent on preparing the body for burial was usually seventy days. Forty days of these were devoted to drying out the dead body. As soon as possible after death, the corpse was handed over to the embalmers. Their task, and the first step in the ancient Egyptian mummification process, was to remove the brain and internal organs immediately, which otherwise would rot rapidly.
The brain was usually removed through the nostrils. The heart, however, as the seat of understanding, was regularly left in place. Although the removal of internal organs was essential for a successful mummification, the Egyptian embalmers considered their careful preservation of the body itself to be of equal importance.
To dehydrate the body efficiently, dissolve body fats, and make the skin lithe, dry soda crystals were used as a part of the ancient Egypt mummification process. The internal organs were also treated with soda – but separately from the body – and then placed in four canopic jars.

6 And I will strengthen the house of Judah, and I will save the house of Joseph, and I will bring them again to place them; for I have mercy upon them: and they shall be as though I had not cast them off: for I am the LORD their God, and will hear them.

“Judah…Joseph” – the people of the southern and northern kingdoms will be reunited.

7 And they of Ephraim shall be like a mighty man, and their heart shall rejoice as through wine: yea, their children shall see it, and be glad; their heart shall rejoice in the LORD.

8 I will hiss for them, and gather them; for I have redeemed them: and they shall increase as they have increased.

“Hiss” – lit. “whistle” or “signal,” a continuation of the shepherd metaphor.  Zechariah uses the shepherd image more than any other book does.

9 And I will sow them among the people: and they shall remember me in far countries; and they shall live with their children, and turn again.

10 I will bring them again also out of the land of Egypt, and gather them out of Assyria; and I will bring them into the land of Gilead and Lebanon; and place shall not be found for them.

“Egypt…Assyria” – probably representing all the counties where the Israelites are dispersed, these two evoke memories of slavery and exile.

11 And he shall pass through the sea with affliction, and shall smite the waves in the sea, and all the deeps of the river shall dry up: and the pride of Assyria shall be brought down, and the scepter of Egypt shall depart away.

12 And I will strengthen them in the LORD; and they shall walk up and down in his name, saith the LORD.

…Genghis Khan, where did they bury him?


The Mongols and Zechariah 9 – The Coming of the King

April 11, 2014

The words in Black and Maroon is the text from historical/archaeological facts or the numbered scriptures from the Bible.  
Words in Blue are God - Red is Jesus – Green is Jerry.
Jerry is not a scholar, but a very curious 12 year old boy who loves Jesus and likes to research.
If you have any questions you would like to be answered privately or any subject you would like posted please contact me here.

The Mongols
Nomad Conquerors

In the early 13th century, north of the medieval civilizations of China and Southeast Asia, a collection of nomadic clans coalesced into one of the largest and most fearsome of all empires: the Mongols.

A bronze paise offered save passage across Mongol trade routes.

A bronze paise offered save passage across Mongol trade routes.

For centuries, nomads on horseback had roamed the high plateaus of Central Asia. Their chilly, windswept lands ran from the Siberian tundra south to the Gobi Desert and from the Altai Mountains in the west to the Great Khingan Range in the east.

In the center were grasslands, steppes that just barely fed the cattle, sheep, and goats that the nomads drove north and south with the seasons.

Mongol clans shared the steppes with Turkic tribes to the west and Tatars to the east. In the 12th century, these Altaic-speaking peoples consisted of feuding groups ruled by chiefs, or khans.

Around 1162, a boy named Temujin was born to one of the clans. According to the 13th century Secret History of the Mongols, Temujin’s father, the tribal chief, was poisoned when Temujin was a child, and the boy, his mother, and his siblings struggled to survive by scavenging berries and rodents on the steppes.

Captured by an enemy clan and imprisoned in a wooden collar, Temujin supposedly escaped by using the collar to: knock his enemy senseless.

Whatever the accuracy of the early tales, there is no doubt that by the time he was a young man, Temujin had acquired a wife, a household, and a leadership position among the clans.  Through force and alliance, he pulled rival groups together under his sole control and built an army.

Genghis Khan is portrayed by a 13th century Chinese artist.

Genghis Khan is portrayed by a 13th century Chinese artist.

Among the first to fall to his warriors was the rival Merkit tribe, which had brought Temujin’s wrath upon themselves when they had stolen his young wife, Borte.

Next to succumb to Temujin’s force were the Tatars; in a typical combination of ruthlessness and inclusiveness, Temujin ordered the killing of all Tatar males taller than the linchpin of a cartwheel, while adopting other Tatars as full members of his tribe.

By 1206, Temujin had conquered the Mongolian steppes. At an assembly of Mongol khans, he was named Genghis Khan, or Universal Ruler. According to the Secret History, the chieftains pledged:

“We will make you Khan: you shall ride at our head, against our foes. We will through ourselves like lightning on your enemies.  We will bring you their finest women and girls, their rich tents like palaces.”

Genghis Khan went on to lead one of the world’s most successful armies.  The warlord insisted that male children be trained in riding and archery almost from birth.  By promoting soldiers on merit and forcing warriors to report to him, not to clan leaders, he broke the division power of the tribal groups.

The army – at its peak containing no more than 125,000 Mongols – was divided into units of 10<000, 1,000, and 100 men.  A new discipline was enforced.  No more would raiders be allowed to invade a camp and then loot at leisure while the enemy fled; Mongol soldiers would pursue and annihilate the enemy first.

Mongol Empire

Mongol Empire

Wives and children of fallen soldiers would receive a share of the booty, ensuring their loyalty.

Genghis also molded Mongol society through his Great Yasa, a code of law governing proper behavior.  The death penalty awaited adulterers, spies, sorcerers, those who defiled water, and many other transgressors.

However, the code shows the leader’s respect for learning and his religious tolerance as well. 

“Khan decided that no taxes or duties should be imposed upon fakirs, religious devotees, lawyers, physicians, scholars, people who devote themselves to prayer and asceticism, muezzins and those who were the bodies of the dead,” noted later transcriptions of the code.

“He ordered that all religions were to be respected and that no preference was to be shown to any of them.  All this he commanded in order that it might be agreeable to Heaven.”

Having unified their forces, the Mongols turned their attention toward their prosperous Asian neighbors with  “their rich tents like palaces.”  Riding into northern China, the great Khan was held off for a while with bribes from the Jurchen emperor, but eventually the Mongol army broke through the Great Wall.

Driving refugees before them, the Mongols used captives as human shields as they besieged one city after another, starving and terrifying the inhabitants.  The Mongols were not above trickery and propaganda, promising at times to spare a city only to renege on their word, entering later and destroying it.

A Persian illustration depicts the tents of Genghis Khan's nomadic camp.

A Persian illustration depicts the tents of Genghis Khan’s nomadic camp.

Valuable craftsmen and specialists were captured and put to use.  Form Chinese engineers, the Mongols learned to build devastating siege weapons such as mangonels and trebuchets.  In 1215, they razed the Jurchen capital of Zhongdu. 

The treacherous Khan then returned to Mongolia to plan his next deadly attacks, leaving a general in charge of the Chinese territories.

For the next few years, the Mongols turned their attentions to lands to the west.  Attempting to open up a trade relationship with Persia in 1218, Genghis Khan sent envoys and merchants to the Khwarazm shah.

When the shah murdered his Mongol visitors, it so enraged the khan that he assembled a huge army and personally led it into Persia on a scorched-earth campaign, destroying city after city, massacring millions, even wiping out their irrigation system. Chroniclers told of mountains of skulls.

Not content with terrorizing the Persians, the Mongol armies also moved into Armenia, Ukraine, and the Crimea. There, for a time, they halted their westward expansion to look east again toward the rebellious Tanguts.

Genghis handily suppressed them in 1227, but then developed a fever and died. By the time of the great khan’s death, the Mongols controlled Central Asia from Persia to northern China.

After a brief power struggle among Genghis’s sons, the Mongol realm was divided among four heirs to form four khanates, in Central Asia, Persia, Russia, and China. Chief among his heirs was Ogodei, the new great khan.

Genghis Kahn hunting with falcons, from Chinese silk painting.

Genghis Kahn hunting with falcons, from Chinese silk painting.

Building a Mongol capital city at Karakoram, on Mongolia’s steppes, Ogodei encouraged traders to pass through with their textiles and jewels and welcomed practitioners of various religions, including Muslims, Christians, and Buddhists.

As ambitious as his father, Ogodei sent armies under his sons and grandsons, guided by experienced generals, in two directions: toward Europe and Russia in the west, and toward Song- dynasty China in the east.

The Mongol horsemen swept ruthlessly across Russia, taking Moscow and Kiev and moving into Hungary European observers were horrified as they watched the advance of the seemingly unstoppable “hordes,” which spread “fire and slaughter wherever they went.”

But Mongol politics spared Europe from what might have been a history-changing invasion: Even as the path lay open to Vienna, Ogodei died, and all Mongol chiefs were recalled to a council to choose a new great khan.

The title passed to Genghis’s grandson Mongke, and after his death in 1259 to possibly the greatest of Genghis’s descendants: Khubilai Khan. Khubilai represented a new kind of Mongol: cultured and settled—though just as aggressive in war.

In 1271, Khubilai declared himself the new emperor of China and the progenitor of the Yuan dynasty, although it took him a few more years actually to subdue his tenacious Song opponents. Khubilai built a luxurious palace at his new capital of Khanbalik near the Yellow River—a city that eventually became Beijing.

Glazed fritware - Islamic pottery - from the Ilkhanate era.

Glazed fritware – Islamic pottery – from the Ilkhanate era.

There, attended by his huge court, he received visitors from East and West and attempted to rule the resentful Chinese. The most famous of his guests, to modern  audiences, was the young Venetian merchant Marco Polo.

Arriving at Khubilai’s court in 1275, he became a favorite of the khan and stayed for 17 years.  His admiring accounts of the Mongols, published in his Travels, describe the wealth of Khubilai’s court, his many concubines, his herds of albino animals, his portable summer palace, and the curious (to Polo) use of paper currency.

Marco was impressed by the skill of Mongol warriors:

“They avail themselves of bows more than of any other things, for they are exceedingly good archers, the best in the world…They are good men and victorious in battle and mightily valiant and they are very furious and have little care for their life, which they put to every risk without any regard.”

The young Polo also noted the khan’s distinctly un-European welcome of various major religions—Christians, Muslims, Jews, and Buddhists—although Khubilai himself held to the shamanistic beliefs of his Mongol heritage.

Despite his accomplishments, Khubilai struggled as an administrator of his vast agricultural lands, so foreign to Mongol experience. The Mongol leaders and their Chinese subjects never blended well, holding each other in mutual disdain, and the Mongols ended the useful Confucian educational system.

Khubilai’s costly attempts to extend his empire east to Japan and south to Thailand, Burma, Java, and elsewhere failed repeatedly. The Japanese invasions were foiled twice by typhoons—to the Japanese, “divine winds.”

An earthenware figure of a cheeful actor in costume, from the Yuan Dynasty.

An earthenware figure of a cheeful actor in costume, from the Yuan Dynasty.

The Yuan dynasty faced economic problems with inflation inside China, as well as epidemics of bubonic plague, which spread to Europe. In 1368, 74 years after Khubilai’s death, Chinese rebels captured the Mongol capital at Khanbalik and the Mongols returned to the steppes.

In Persia, Mongol rule started brutally with the bloody siege of Baghdad in 1258, the death of the Abbasid caliph, and the massacre of more than 200,000 inhabitants. Further advances into Egypt and Syria were foiled by the Mamluk army; reportedly, the Mamluks led the Mongol horsemen into rocky territory, where their unshod horses suffered.

Meanwhile, they burned the grasslands that would feed the animals.  Under Hulegu, Khubilai’s brother, the Mongols settled in to rule Persia, but delegated most of the administration to Persian bureaucrats.

 Hulegu acknowledged his alliance to the great khan by naming his realm the Ilkhanate  (“subordinate khanate”). Fairly quickly, however, the Mongol invaders were assimilated into Persian culture. 

By 1295, the Ilkhan ruler Ghazan converted to Islam and replaced the Mongol code with the sharia, Islāmic law. Poor administrators there as elsewhere, the Mongols were overthrown in Persia by the nomad leader Timur and the Turks in the 14th century.

In Russia, the Mongols had a longer lasting influence. In part, this was because the societies they conquered were less sophisticated and closer to Mongol culture. Known as the Golden Horde, possibly because of Mongol leader Batu’s supposedly golden tent.

Mongol conquerors shepherd their prisoners and loot, including livestock, during the invasion of Hungary ion 1241.

Mongol conquerors shepherd their prisoners and loot, including livestock, during the invasion of Hungary ion 1241.

The Russian Mongols ruled from The Urals into Siberia.  They prized the region’s pastures but had less use for its cities, viewing them primarily as sources of tribute.  They too, became gradually Islamicized, and like the Ilkhans, most were eventually overthrown by Timur’s invading forces in 1395.

In the Crimea, however, the Golden Horde Horde Mongols continued to occupy the land until the 20th century.

The khanate of Chagatai, smallest of the Mongol territories, encompassed the conquered cities of Bukhara and Samarkand and traditional nomadic pasturelands of Central Asia. Gradually the Chagatai Mongols, too, became assimilated and Muslim and, like their brethren in Persia and Russia, were overcome by Timur and his Turkish armies.

At its height in the 13th century, the Mongol Empire controlled territory from the Arctic Ocean to the Strait of Malacca, and from the Pacific Ocean to Hungary— between 11 and 12 million square miles.

Brilliant and pitiless warriors, the Mongols did not have the skills to successfully rule most of the lands they conquered. (“The empire was created on horseback, but it cannot be governed on horseback,” observed Ogodei).

A mounted Mongol archer, shown in a lithograph from a Chinese drawing.

A mounted Mongol archer, shown in a lithograph from a Chinese drawing.

They left little behind in terms of tangible culture: no distinctive architecture, literature, crafts, or religion. However, they appreciated skill and learning in others and went far toward integrating Eastern and Western cultures by maintaining trade routes and resettling captured peoples, particularly prized craftsmen and scholars.

Religions, foods, technologies, medicine, and more spread from east to west along Mongol roads. 

Perhaps the most enduring legacy of the Mongols is genetic. Researchers have traced a direct genetic link between the ruling Mongol family and about 8% of the men in the regions of the former Mongol Empire—meaning that about .5% of the world’s population today may be descended from Genghis Khan.



It is questioned on which conqueror was better, Alexander the Great or Genghis Khan.  They were both military geniuses and fierce warriors and they both erred in the most important matter of life, neither of them worshiped You.  729-j

And therefore, I can honestly say neither of them was the greatest of all, David had them both beat.

A Psalm of David.

The LORD is my shepherd; I shall not want.

He maketh me to lie down in green pastures: he leadeth me beside the still waters.

He restoreth my soul: he leadeth me in the paths of righteousness for his name’s sake.729-jj

Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil: for thou art with me; thy rod and thy staff they comfort me.

Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of mine enemies: thou anointest my head with oil; my cup runneth over.

Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life: and I will dwell in the house of the LORD for ever (Ps 23).

Most commentators believe that David great masterpiece of faith, the twenty-third psalm was written when David was a youth, before he met the mighty Goliath in battle.729-jjj

This great faith can sustain us and give us courage to stand up to all the problems of life.

For the which cause I also suffer these things: nevertheless I am not ashamed: for I know whom I have believed, and am persuaded that he is able to keep that which I have committed unto him against that day (2 Timothy 1:12) .

For whatsoever is born of God overcometh the world: and this is the victory that overcometh the world, even our faith (1 John 5:4).

I know you that You will not walk away from those that walk with you:

There shall not any man be able to stand before thee all the days of thy life: as I was with Moses, so I will be with thee: I will not fail thee, nor forsake thee (Josh 1:5).729-jjjj

And by Your own words, I can’t believe anyone could have been a greater warrior then David:

And when he had removed him, he raised up unto them David to be their king; to whom also he gave testimony, and said, I have found David the son of Jesse, a man after mine own heart, which shall fulfil all my will (Acts 13:22).

Alexander had some good fighting men, so let’s look at…

Zechariah 9
The Coming of the King

1 The burden of the word of the LORD in the land of Hadrach, and Damascus shall be the rest thereof: when the eyes of man, as of all the tribes of Israel, shall be toward the LORD.

Damascus commonly known in Syria as ash-Sham  and nicknamed as the City of Jasmine  is the capital and the second largest city of Syria after Aleppo. It borders Quneitra, Daraa and As-Suwayda to the south, Jordan to the east, Homs to the north, and Lebanon to the west. It is also the capital city of one of the country's 14 governorates. In addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, Damascus is a major cultural and religious center of the Levant. The city has an estimated population of 1,711,000 (2009 est.)

Damascus commonly known in Syria as ash-Sham and nicknamed as the City of Jasmine is the capital and the second largest city of Syria after Aleppo. It borders Quneitra, Daraa and As-Suwayda to the south, Jordan to the east, Homs to the north, and Lebanon to the west. It is also the capital city of one of the country’s 14 governorates. In addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, Damascus is a major cultural and religious center of the Levant. The city has an estimated population of 1,711,000 (2009 est.)

9:1-8 – probably a prophetic description of the Lord’s march south to Jerusalem, destroying – as Divine Warrior – the traditional enemies of Israel.  As history shows, the agent of His judgment was Alexander the Great.

“Hadrach” – Hatarickka, north of Hamath on the Orontes River.

“Damascus” – the leading city-state of the Arameans.

2 And Hamath also shall border thereby; Tyrus, and Zidon, though it be very wise.

“Tyrus, and Zidon” – Tyre and Sidon, Phoenician (modern Lebanese) coastal cities.  Their judgment is also foretold in Isa 23; Eze 26:3-14; 28:20-24; Amos 1:9-10.

3 And Tyrus did build herself a strong hold, and heaped up silver as the dust, and fine gold as the mire of the streets.

“Strong hold” – the Hebrew for this word is a pun on the Hebrew for “Tyrus” (meaning “rock” but also “siege enclosure”).  The stronghold was Tyre’s island fortress, which became a “rampart” for invading forces.  It fell to Alexander in 332 B.C.

4 Behold, the Lord will cast her out, and he will smite her power in the sea; and she shall be devoured with fire.

5 Ashkelon shall see it, and fear; Gaza also shall see it, and be very sorrowful, and Ekron; for her expectation shall be ashamed; and the king shall perish from Gaza, and Ashkelon shall not be inhabited.

9:5-7 – the Philistine cities were greatly alarmed at Alexander’s steady advance.

6 And a bastard shall dwell in Ashdod, and I will cut off the pride of the Philistines.

“Bastard” – people of mixed nationality; they characterized the post-exilic period.

The Straight Street of Damascus, the Biblical "Street called Straight"

The Straight Street of Damascus, the Biblical “Street called Straight”

7 And I will take away his blood out of his mouth, and his abominations from between his teeth: but he that remaineth, even he, shall be for our God, and he shall be as a governor in Judah, and Ekron as a Jebusite.

8 And I will encamp about mine house because of the army, because of him that passeth by, and because of him that returneth: and no oppressor shall pass through them any more: for now have I seen with mine eyes.

9 Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem: behold, thy King cometh unto thee: he is just, and having salvation; lowly, and riding upon an ass, and upon a colt the foal of an ass.

“Riding upon an ass” – a suitable choice, since the donkey was a lowly animal of peace, as well as a princely mount before the horse came into common use.  The royal mount used by David and his sons was the mule.  And of course, the triumphal entry of Jesus Christ into Jerusalem (Mk 11:1-11).

10 And I will cut off the chariot from Ephraim, and the horse from Jerusalem, and the battle bow shall be cut off: and he shall speak peace unto the heathen: and his dominion shall be from sea even to sea, and from the river even to the ends of the earth.

Ruins of the Jupiter Temple at the entrance of Al-Hamidiyah Souq

Ruins of the Jupiter Temple at the entrance of Al-Hamidiyah Souq

11 As for thee also, by the blood of thy covenant I have sent forth thy prisoners out of the pit wherein is no water.

12 Turn you to the strong hold, ye prisoners of hope: even today do I declare that I will render double unto thee;

13 When I have bent Judah for me, filled the bow with Ephraim, and raised up thy sons, O Zion, against thy sons, O Greece, and made thee as the sword of a mighty man.

14 And the LORD shall be seen over them, and his arrow shall go forth as the lightning: and the Lord GOD shall blow the trumpet, and shall go with whirlwinds of the south.

15 The LORD of hosts shall defend them; and they shall devour, and subdue with sling stones; and they shall drink, and make a noise as through wine; and they shall be filled like bowls, and as the corners of the altar.

One of the rare periods the Barada river is high, seen here next to the Four Seasons hotel in downtown Damascus.

One of the rare periods the Barada river is high, seen here next to the Four Seasons hotel in downtown Damascus.

16 And the LORD their God shall save them in that day as the flock of his people: for they shall be as the stones of a crown, lifted up as an ensign upon his land.

17 For how great is his goodness, and how great is his beauty! corn shall make the young men cheerful, and new wine the maids.



…what type of army did Genghis have?


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