Leisure and Romans 5 – Results of Justification by Faith

August 30, 2014

The words in Black and Maroon is the text from historical/archaeological facts or the numbered scriptures from the Bible.  
Words in Blue are God – Red is Jesus – Green is Jerry.
Jerry is not a scholar, but a very curious 12 year old boy who loves Jesus and likes to research.
If you have any questions you would like to be answered privately or any subject you would like posted please contact me here.

Leisure

Did the Romans have free time?

Most people in Roman times did not have much spare time. They were too busy working. They liked games though.

Ancient Playing Grid Etched into a Step. Tabula was the Roman form of the game played today as backgammon.  It was called tabula, which means 'table' or 'board', since it was played on a special board.  Being most popular as a gambling game, Tabula was often called or classified as alea, which means 'gambling'.  Alea actually referred to gambling in general, including dice (Tesserae) games.  The term for dicing, tesserarum, could also refer to Tabula.  Tabula dates back to several centuries B.C. and appears to have evolved directly from Duodecim Scriptorum. Tabula bears some similarity to Egyptian Senet, which dates back to at least 3000 B.C. and which was the forerunner of Duodecim Scripta (aka Duodecim Scriptorum).

Ancient Playing Grid Etched into a Step.
Tabula was the Roman form of the game played today as backgammon.
It was called tabula, which means ‘table’ or ‘board’, since it was played on a special board.
Being most popular as a gambling game, Tabula was often called or classified as alea, which means ‘gambling’.
Alea actually referred to gambling in general, including dice (Tesserae) games.
The term for dicing, tesserarum, could also refer to Tabula.
Tabula dates back to several centuries B.C. and appears to have evolved directly from Duodecim Scriptorum.
Tabula bears some similarity to Egyptian Senet, which dates back to at least 3000 B.C. and which was the forerunner of Duodecim Scripta (aka Duodecim Scriptorum).

Soldiers often played board games with counters and dice. Counters and boards for their games have been found. Archaeologists aren’t always sure of the rules!

Hunting was also popular. People hunted animals for fun as well as for food. The Romans introduced fallow deer to Britain, just for hunting.

Some things the Romans did for fun were horrible. They enjoyed fights between gladiators, and fights between people and animals.

These bloodthirsty shows were put on in front of crowds in large arenas called amphitheaters.

Roman emperors paid for free shows at theatres and amphitheatres. It was a good way to make themselves popular.

What did gladiators do?

Gladiators fought one another, usually in pairs. They also fought wild animals such as lions or bears.

When a gladiator was beaten (but still alive), the audience would wave scarves or put their thumbs out if they wanted him killed.

If he’d fought well, and they wanted him to live, they would close their thumbs onto their fingers. Different types of gladiators used different weapons.

For example, a man with a sword and shield might fight a man with a three-pronged spear or trident, and a big net.

What was a Roman play like?

Romans enjoyed the theatre. Most plays were funny comedies, though there were serious tragedies as well.

Actors often wore masks to show whether their character was happy or sad! They also wore wigs – an old man had a white wig, a slave had a red wig.

Tabula is the gambling game of which the Emperor Claudius was most fond.  About 50 A.D., Claudius wrote a history of the game of Tabula which, most unfortunately, has not survived.  His imperial carriage was equipped with an alveus, a Tabula playing board, so that he could play while travelling.  Some think that this board was for only for playing dice rather than the more engaging game of Tabula.  Now although Claudius is derogatorily depicted in the Apocolocyntosis as a dice-player, this was a satire in which Claudius was painted in the most unflattering terms.  In spite of being called Claudius the Idiot, he was in fact no idiot at all, and was somewhat of a scholar.  His mere survival in the turbulent empire, as Robert Graves points out, and success at being one of the better emperors, is clear evidence of his intellect.  It is no more likely that Claudius played only dice and not Tabula, than it is that he would have "metamorphosed into a pumpkin" per the said satire, which should not be taken more seriously by modern scholars than it was by the Romans themselves. Tabula is one of the games that was primarily responsible for the gambling mania which swept Rome prior to gambling being declared illegal under the Republic.  The fine for gambling at any other time except the Saturnalia was four times the stakes, although this law was only weakly and sporadically enforced.

Tabula is the gambling game of which the Emperor Claudius was most fond.
About 50 A.D., Claudius wrote a history of the game of Tabula which, most unfortunately, has not survived.
His imperial carriage was equipped with an alveus, a Tabula playing board, so that he could play while travelling.
Some think that this board was for only for playing dice rather than the more engaging game of Tabula.
Now although Claudius is derogatorily depicted in the Apocolocyntosis as a dice-player, this was a satire in which Claudius was painted in the most unflattering terms.
In spite of being called Claudius the Idiot, he was in fact no idiot at all, and was somewhat of a scholar.
His mere survival in the turbulent empire, as Robert Graves points out, and success at being one of the better emperors, is clear evidence of his intellect.
It is no more likely that Claudius played only dice and not Tabula, than it is that he would have “metamorphosed into a pumpkin” per the said satire, which should not be taken more seriously by modern scholars than it was by the Romans themselves.
Tabula is one of the games that was primarily responsible for the gambling mania which swept Rome prior to gambling being declared illegal under the Republic.
The fine for gambling at any other time except the Saturnalia was four times the stakes, although this law was only weakly and sporadically enforced.

Why did Romans like baths so much?

Roman baths were like leisure centres. You went there to relax, not just to get clean.

The baths were open to everyone, and a good place to keep fit, meet people and do business.

When you went to the baths, you took off your outdoor clothes and warmed up with some exercises.

Then, after a swim in the pool, you went into a series of heated rooms. You got hotter and hotter, to sweat out the dirt.

You’d chat with friends while you sweated, and perhaps have a massage and rub down with perfumed oil.

Then you (or a slave) would scrape off the dirt, sweat and oil with a metal scraper called a strigil.

Finally, a plunge into a cold pool. Very refreshing! The best preserved Roman baths in Britain are in the city of Bath.

What happened in a chariot race?

In Rome there was a huge stadium called the Circus Maximus, used for chariot races.

Chariot races were held in Britain too. These were thrilling, but very dangerous.

Chariots were small two-wheeled carts, driven by one man and pulled by four galloping horses. They raced around an oval track. There were often smashes during the seven-lap races.

Fun Facts:

If a gladiator lived long enough to retire, he was given a wooden sword as a present.

Many Roman actors “over-acted”, waving their arms and shouting. They had to attract the audience’s attention because plays often went on for hours.

Martial, a famous Roman writer, wrote that the most annoying noises from the baths were the yells of the sausage-sellers calls and the shrieks of customers having their hair plucked out!

 XClose Roman dice Romans, especially soldiers, liked dice games. These are Roman dice, found in London.

Roman dice
Romans, especially soldiers, liked dice games. These are Roman dice, found in London.

Big amphitheaters were sometimes flooded to stage spectacular water shows with real boats and even crocodiles.

There were four teams of chariot racers in Rome. People supported them like we follow football teams and wore the team’s colours.


Ancient Rom had to have been interesting and it even seems like it might have been fun, some times. 

But we have to wonder, unless you were the emperor of a high up politician, was leisure actually leisure?

Tomorrow, we’ll look at the Romans’…

Romans 5
Results of Justification by Faith

1 Therefore being justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ:

Claudius was Roman emperor from 41 to 54. A member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, he was the son of Drusus and Antonia Minor. He was born at Lugdunum in Gaul and was the first Roman Emperor to be born outside Italy.

Claudius was Roman emperor from 41 to 54. A member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, he was the son of Drusus and Antonia Minor. He was born at Lugdunum in Gaul and was the first Roman Emperor to be born outside Italy.

“Peace with God” – not merely a subjective feeling (peace of mind) but primarily an objective status, a new relationship with God: Once we were His enemies, but now we are His friends (see v. 10: Eph 2:16; Col 1:21-22).

2 By whom also we have access by faith into this grace wherein we stand, and rejoice in hope of the glory of God.

3 And not only so, but we glory in tribulations also: knowing that tribulation worketh patience;

4 And patience, experience; and experience, hope:

A Christian can rejoice in suffering because he knows that it is not meaningless.  Part of God’s purpose is to produce character in His children.

For example, if a person was incarcerated for a crime they didn’t commit, it would be horrible. 

Yet, if they did their time with God by their side then the event would be enjoyable and even gainful.

5 And hope maketh not ashamed; because the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Ghost which is given unto us.

“Hope maketh not ashamed” – the believer’s hope is not to be equated with unfounded optimism. 

On the contrary, it is the blessed assurance of our future destiny and is based on God’s love which is revealed to us by the Holy Ghost and objectively remonstrated to us in the death of Christ. 

Part of the Zliten mosaic from Libya (Leptis Magna), about 2nd century CE.  It shows (left to right) a thraex fighting a murmillo, a hoplomachus standing with another murmillo (who is signaling his defeat to the referee), and one of a matched pair. A gladiator (Latin: gladiator, "swordsman", from gladius, "sword") was an armed combatant who entertained audiences in the Roman Republic and Roman Empire in violent confrontations with other gladiators, wild animals, and condemned criminals.  Some gladiators were volunteers who risked their legal and social standing and their lives by appearing in the arena.  Most were despised as slaves, schooled under harsh conditions, socially marginalized, and segregated even in death.

Part of the Zliten mosaic from Libya (Leptis Magna), about 2nd century CE.
It shows (left to right) a thraex fighting a murmillo, a hoplomachus standing with another murmillo (who is signaling his defeat to the referee), and one of a matched pair.
A gladiator (Latin: gladiator, “swordsman”, from gladius, “sword”) was an armed combatant who entertained audiences in the Roman Republic and Roman Empire in violent confrontations with other gladiators, wild animals, and condemned criminals.
Some gladiators were volunteers who risked their legal and social standing and their lives by appearing in the arena.
Most were despised as slaves, schooled under harsh conditions, socially marginalized, and segregated even in death.

Paul has moved from faith to hope to love (see 1 Cor 13:13; 1 Thes 1:3).

“Is shed abroad” – the verb indicates a present status resulting from a past action.  When we first believed in Christ, the Holy Ghost poured out His love in our hearts, and His love for us continues to dwell in us.

6 For when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for the ungodly.

7 For scarcely for a righteous man will one die: yet peradventure for a good man some would even dare to die.

“Righteous man…good man” – we were neither righteous nor good, but sinners, when Christ died for us.

In all actuality, we deserve nothing from God, but God says otherwise.  If we believe in Jesus Christ then we deserve everything and we will obtain it.

Some people think they are so horrible that God could not love them and they refuse Him. 

I once had a girlfriend that was quite wealthy and I was unemployed so she wanted to give me some money.

I refused to accept her gift and she said, “It is impolite to refuse a gift.”  I had to think for a minute before I realized she was correct.

Imagine how your mother would feel if she brought you a gift and you refused it.  How do you think she would feel?

An amphitheater is an open-air venue used for entertainment, performances, and sports.  Ancient Greek theaters were built in a semicircle, with tiered seating above a performance area.  Ancient Roman amphitheaters were oval or circular in plan, with seating tiers that surrounded the central performance area, like a modern open-air stadium.  Modern usage for "amphitheater" does not always respect the ancient usage, and so the word can embrace theater-style stages with the audience only on one side, theaters in the round, and stadiums.  Natural formations shaped like man-made theaters or amphitheaters are sometimes known as natural amphitheaters. The three largest Roman amphitheaters in the world in order of size are the Colosseum, the Amphitheater Campania and the Amphitheater of El Djem.

An amphitheater is an open-air venue used for entertainment, performances, and sports.
Ancient Greek theaters were built in a semicircle, with tiered seating above a performance area.
Ancient Roman amphitheaters were oval or circular in plan, with seating tiers that surrounded the central performance area, like a modern open-air stadium.
Modern usage for “amphitheater” does not always respect the ancient usage, and so the word can embrace theater-style stages with the audience only on one side, theaters in the round, and stadiums.
Natural formations shaped like man-made theaters or amphitheaters are sometimes known as natural amphitheaters.
The three largest Roman amphitheaters in the world in order of size are the Colosseum, the Amphitheater Campania and the Amphitheater of El Djem.

It’s the same with God, don’t refuse what He offers and don’t let stupid man convince you to turn down the gift of all gifts: Eternal Life with Jesus Christ.

8 But God commendeth his love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us.

9 Much more then, being now justified by his blood, we shall be saved from wrath through him.

10 For if, when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son, much more, being reconciled, we shall be saved by his life.

“Enemies” – man is the enemy of God, not the reverse.  Thus the hostility must be removed from man if reconciliation is to be accomplished. 

God took the initiative in bringing this about through the death of His Son (see Col 1:21-22).

“Reconciled” – to reconcile is “to put an end to hostility,” and is closely related to the term “justify,” as the parallelism in vv. 9-10 indicates:

v. 9                                          v. 10

Justified                              Reconciled

By his blood                       By the death of His Son

We shall be saved           We shall be saved

“Saved by his life” – a reference to the unending life and ministry of the resurrected Christ for His people. 

Since we are reconciled when we were God’s enemies, we will be saved because Christ lives to keep us.

11 And not only so, but we also joy in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom we have now received the atonement.

Arles Amphitheatre, a Roman arena in Arles, France, still in use today[1] for bullfighting, plays and summer concerts.

Arles Amphitheatre, a Roman arena in Arles, France, still in use today for bullfighting, plays and summer concerts.

12 Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned:

5:12-21 – a contrast between Adam and Christ.  Adam introduced sin and death into the world: Christ brought righteousness and life. 

The comparison begun in v. 12 is completed in v. 18; these two verses summarize the whole passage.

These two men also sum up the message of the book up to this point.  Adam stands for man’s condemnation; Christ stands for the believer’s justification.

“Death” – physical death is the penalty for sin.  It is also the symbol of spiritual death, man’s ultimate separation from God.

“For that all have sinned” – not a repetition of 3:23.  The context shows that Adam’s sin involved the rest of mankind in condemnation and death. 

We do not start life with even the possibility of living it sinlessly; we begin with the sinful nature (see Gen 8:21; Ps 51:5, 58:3, Eph 2:3).

The first shrine at the site of the hot springs was built by Celts, and was dedicated to the goddess Sulis, whom the Romans identified with Minerva.  Geoffrey of Monmouth in his largely fictional Historia Regum Britanniae describes how in 836 B.C. the spring was discovered by the British king Bladud who built the first baths. Early in the 18th century Geoffrey's obscure legend was given great prominence as a royal endorsement of the waters' qualities, with the embellishment that the spring had cured Bladud and his herd of pigs of leprosy through wallowing in the warm mud. Roman use[edit] The name Sulis continued to be used after the Roman invasion, leading to the town's Roman name of Aquae Sulis ("the waters of Sulis").  The temple was constructed in 60-70 A.D. and the bathing complex was gradually built up over the next 300 years. During the Roman occupation of Britain, and possibly on the instructions of Emperor Claudius, engineers drove oak piles to provide a stable foundation into the mud and surrounded the spring with an irregular stone chamber lined with lead.  In the 2nd century it was enclosed within a wooden barrel-vaulted building, and included the caldarium (hot bath), tepidarium (warm bath), and frigidarium (cold bath). After the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the first decade of the 5th century, these fell into disrepair and were eventually lost due to silting up, and flooding. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle suggests the original Roman baths were destroyed in the 6th century. About 130 curse tablets have been found. Many of the curses related to thefts of clothes whilst the victim was bathing. This collection is the most important found in Britain.

The first shrine at the site of the hot springs was built by Celts, and was dedicated to the goddess Sulis, whom the Romans identified with Minerva.
Geoffrey of Monmouth in his largely fictional Historia Regum Britanniae describes how in 836 B.C. the spring was discovered by the British king Bladud who built the first baths.
Early in the 18th century Geoffrey’s obscure legend was given great prominence as a royal endorsement of the waters’ qualities, with the embellishment that the spring had cured Bladud and his herd of pigs of leprosy through wallowing in the warm mud.
Roman use[edit]
The name Sulis continued to be used after the Roman invasion, leading to the town’s Roman name of Aquae Sulis (“the waters of Sulis”).
The temple was constructed in 60-70 A.D. and the bathing complex was gradually built up over the next 300 years.
During the Roman occupation of Britain, and possibly on the instructions of Emperor Claudius, engineers drove oak piles to provide a stable foundation into the mud and surrounded the spring with an irregular stone chamber lined with lead.
In the 2nd century it was enclosed within a wooden barrel-vaulted building, and included the caldarium (hot bath), tepidarium (warm bath), and frigidarium (cold bath).
After the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the first decade of the 5th century, these fell into disrepair and were eventually lost due to silting up, and flooding.
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle suggests the original Roman baths were destroyed in the 6th century.
About 130 curse tablets have been found. Many of the curses related to thefts of clothes whilst the victim was bathing.
This collection is the most important found in Britain.

John Locke (1632-1704), widely known as the Father of Classical Liberalism, had believed that when we are born without knowledge of anything (Tabula Rasa), but God says otherwise:

We are born evil at heart:

he wicked are estranged from the womb: they go astray as soon as they are born, speaking lies (Ps 58:3).

Yet, we know of God, not His ways and all that He has done and will do, but we know Him:

He hath made everything beautiful in his time: also he hath set the world in their heart, so that no man can find out the work that God maketh from the beginning to the end (Ecc 3:11).

Back to v. 5:12-21 – Due to the fall of Adam and Eve we are born on the road that leads to hell, but Jesus Christ came and died for us, giving us a road map to heaven, Himself.

13 (For until the law sin was in the world: but sin is not imputed when there is no law.

“Sin is not imputed” – in the period when there was no (Mosaic) law, sin was not charged against me.  Death, however, continued to occur. 

Since death is the penalty of sin, people between Adam and Moses were involved in the sin of someone else, namely, Adam.

14 Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam’s transgression, who is the figure of him that was to come.

15 But not as the offence, so also is the free gift. For if through the offence of one many be dead, much more the grace of God, and the gift by grace, which is by one man, Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto many.

Bath is a city in the ceremonial county of Somerset in South West England. It is situated 97 miles  west of London and 13 miles south-east of Bristol.  At the 2011 census, the population of the city was 94,782. It was granted city status by Royal Charter by Queen Elizabeth I in 1590, and was made a county borough in 1889 which gave it administrative independence from its county, Somerset.  The city became part of Avon when that county was created in 1974.  Since 1996, when Avon was abolished, Bath has been the principal center of the unitary authority of Bath and North East Somerset (B&NES). The city was first established as a spa with the Latin name, Aquae Sulis ("the waters of Sulis") by the Romans sometime in the A.D. 60s about 20 years after they had arrived in Britain (AD43), although oral tradition suggests that Bath was known before then. They built baths and a temple on the surrounding hills of Bath in the valley of the River Avon around hot springs. Edgar was crowned king of England at Bath Abbey in 973. Much later, it became popular as a spa town during the Georgian era, which led to a major expansion that left a heritage of exemplary Georgian architecture crafted from Bath Stone. The City of Bath was inscribed as a World Heritage Site in 1987.  The city has a variety of theatres, museums, and other cultural and sporting venues, which have helped to make it a major centre for tourism, with over one million staying visitors and 3.8 million day visitors to the city each year. The city has two universities and several schools and colleges. There is a large service sector, and growing information and communication technologies and creative industries, providing employment for the population of Bath and the surrounding area.

Bath is a city in the ceremonial county of Somerset in South West England.
It is situated 97 miles west of London and 13 miles south-east of Bristol.
At the 2011 census, the population of the city was 94,782.
It was granted city status by Royal Charter by Queen Elizabeth I in 1590, and was made a county borough in 1889 which gave it administrative independence from its county, Somerset.
The city became part of Avon when that county was created in 1974.
Since 1996, when Avon was abolished, Bath has been the principal center of the unitary authority of Bath and North East Somerset (B&NES).
The city was first established as a spa with the Latin name, Aquae Sulis (“the waters of Sulis”) by the Romans sometime in the A.D. 60s about 20 years after they had arrived in Britain (AD43), although oral tradition suggests that Bath was known before then.
They built baths and a temple on the surrounding hills of Bath in the valley of the River Avon around hot springs.
Edgar was crowned king of England at Bath Abbey in 973. Much later, it became popular as a spa town during the Georgian era, which led to a major expansion that left a heritage of exemplary Georgian architecture crafted from Bath Stone.
The City of Bath was inscribed as a World Heritage Site in 1987.
The city has a variety of theatres, museums, and other cultural and sporting venues, which have helped to make it a major centre for tourism, with over one million staying visitors and 3.8 million day visitors to the city each year.
The city has two universities and several schools and colleges. There is a large service sector, and growing information and communication technologies and creative industries, providing employment for the population of Bath and the surrounding area.

“Much more” – a theme that runs through this section.  God’s grace is infinitely greater for good than Adam’s sin for evil.

16 And not as it was by one that sinned, so is the gift: for the judgment was by one to condemnation, but the free gift is of many offences unto justification.

17 For if by one man’s offence death reigned by one; much more they which receive abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness shall reign in life by one, Jesus Christ.)

18 Therefore as by the offence of one judgment came upon all men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness of one the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life.

“Free gift came upon all men” – does not mean that everyone eventually will be saved, but that salvation is available to all. 

To be effective, God’s gracious gift must be received.

Remember, it’s impolite not to accept a gift?

19 For as by one man’s disobedience many were made sinners, so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous.

20 Moreover the law entered, that the offence might abound. But where sin abounded, grace did much more abound:

“Law entered” – not to bring about redemption but to point up the need for it.  The law made sin even more sinful by revealing what sin is in stark contrast to God’s holiness.

21 That as sin hath reigned unto death, even so might grace reign through righteousness unto eternal life by Jesus Christ our Lord.


…technology.


The Roman Army and Romans 4 – Abraham Saved by Faith

August 29, 2014

The words in Black and Maroon is the text from historical/archaeological facts or the numbered scriptures from the Bible.  
Words in Blue are God – Red is Jesus – Green is Jerry.
Jerry is not a scholar, but a very curious 12 year old boy who loves Jesus and likes to research.
If you have any questions you would like to be answered privately or any subject you would like posted please contact me here.

The Roman Army

Who was in the Roman army?

Only men could be in the Roman Army. No women. Every Roman soldier was a Roman citizen. He had to be at least 20 years old.

This modern painting shows Roman soldiers at Birdoswald Fort (Hadrian's Wall). A centurion watches men training.

This modern painting shows Roman soldiers at Birdoswald Fort (Hadrian’s Wall). A centurion watches men training.

He was not supposed to get married while he was a soldier. Most soldiers in the Roman Empire came from countries outside Italy.

There were Roman soldiers from Africa, France, Germany, the Balkans, Spain and the Middle East.

Soldiers had to stay in the army for at least 25 years! Then they could retire, with a pension or a gift of land to farm.

Old soldiers often settled down to old age together, in a military town or colonia.

What was a legion?

There were about 30 legions in the Roman army. Each legion had between 4,000 and 6,000 soldiers, called legionaries. Each legion had ten cohorts.

Each cohort was made up of six troops of about 80 legionaries, called centuries. Each century was led by a centurion.

Birdoswald was a major Roman military fort built to protect Hadrian's Wall and a crossing of the River Irthing.  There is also a Neolithic burial on the site, and the remains of an Anglo-Saxon hall can be seen.  Birdoswald has also been traditionally associated with Camlan, the legendary site of King Arthur's last battle. The fort is remarkably complete, and offers an enjoyable glimpse of life on the Roman frontier long ago.  The site covers about five acres on high ground above the river gorge, and remains of the early turf wall which preceded Hadrian's Wall are clearly visible.

Birdoswald was a major Roman military fort built to protect Hadrian’s Wall and a crossing of the River Irthing.
There is also a Neolithic burial on the site, and the remains of an Anglo-Saxon hall can be seen.
Birdoswald has also been traditionally associated with Camlan, the legendary site of King Arthur’s last battle.
The fort is remarkably complete, and offers an enjoyable glimpse of life on the Roman frontier long ago.
The site covers about five acres on high ground above the river gorge, and remains of the early turf wall which preceded Hadrian’s Wall are clearly visible.

A centurion carried a short rod, to show his importance. He could also use his stick to beat any soldier who disobeyed an order. The officer commanding the whole legion was called a legate.

What other soldiers did the Romans have?

Legionaries were the best Roman soldiers, and the best paid. There were other soldiers though. An auxiliary was a soldier who was not a Roman citizen.

He was paid a third as much as a legionary. Auxiliaries guarded forts and frontiers, but also fought in battles, often in the front lines, where it was the most dangerous.

Some soldiers had special skills. They shot bows and arrows, flung stones from slingshots, or could swim rivers to surprise an enemy – like modern commandos.

Artillery soldiers fired giant catapults, called onagers in Latin, machines that fired rocks or balls of burning tar. The Romans used big wind-up crossbows, called ballistas in Latin, too.

Usually, Romans liked to fight on foot. They used cavalry (soldiers riding horses) to chase a fleeing enemy. In a battle, the cavalry often lined up either side of the infantry (foot-soldiers).

What armour and weapons did the Romans have?

We know about Roman armour and weapons from Roman pictures and statues, and from finds by modern archaeologists.

A Roman cavalry helmet, found at Ribchester (Lancashire). A fancy helmet like this was probably worn for parades or sports events.

A Roman cavalry helmet, found at Ribchester (Lancashire). A fancy helmet like this was probably worn for parades or sports events.

A Roman soldier wore armour made from strips of iron and leather (lorica segmentata in Latin). On his head was a metal helmet (galea).

He carried a rectangular shield (scutum), curved so it protected his body. The shield was made of wood and leather.

The soldier’s main weapons were a short sword for stabbing (gladius) and a long spear, or javelin (pilum) for throwing.

The javelin had a sharp iron point, and a thin, bendy shaft. When it hit an enemy’s shield, the point stuck in, but the shaft bent.

This made it difficult to pull out. The long spear shaft got in the way, so the enemy soldier had to throw away his shield.

How well-trained were Roman soldiers?

Roman soldiers kept fit by running, marching and practice-fighting. They could march 20 miles (30 km) a day wearing armour.

They could swim or cross rivers in boats, build bridges, and smash their way into forts.

Roman cavalry helmet found in Iron Age shrine may prove Britons fought with legions A 2,000-year-old Roman cavalry helmet has shed new light on the conquest of Britain after experts pieced it back together 10 years since its discovery in an Iron Age shrine. The 'Hallaton Helmet' a 2,000-year-old Roman helmet found at an old Iron Age site at Hallaton in Leciestershire in 2002 is to go on display at the Harborough  Constructed of sheet iron, the helmet, once decorated with gold leaf, is the only one to have been found in Britain with its silver gilt plating intact. The helmet features scenes of Roman military victory, including the bust of a woman flanked by lions, and a Roman Emperor on horseback with the goddess Victory flying behind and a cowering figure, possibly a native Briton, being trampled under his horse's hooves. The object is believed to have been buried in the years around Roman Emperor Claudius's invasion of Britain in 43 A.D. The ''distinct possibility'' that it belonged to a Briton serving in the Roman cavalry before the conquest of Britain raises questions about the relationship between Romans and Britons. It is thought that the helmet may have been buried at what was a local shrine on the Briton's return to the East Midlands, as a gift to the gods.

Roman cavalry helmet found in Iron Age shrine may prove Britons fought with legions
A 2,000-year-old Roman cavalry helmet has shed new light on the conquest of Britain after experts pieced it back together 10 years since its discovery in an Iron Age shrine.
The ‘Hallaton Helmet’ a 2,000-year-old Roman helmet found at an old Iron Age site at Hallaton in Leciestershire in 2002 is to go on display at the Harborough
Constructed of sheet iron, the helmet, once decorated with gold leaf, is the only one to have been found in Britain with its silver gilt plating intact.
The helmet features scenes of Roman military victory, including the bust of a woman flanked by lions, and a Roman Emperor on horseback with the goddess Victory flying behind and a cowering figure, possibly a native Briton, being trampled under his horse’s hooves.
The object is believed to have been buried in the years around Roman Emperor Claudius’s invasion of Britain in 43 A.D.
The ”distinct possibility” that it belonged to a Briton serving in the Roman cavalry before the conquest of Britain raises questions about the relationship between Romans and Britons.
It is thought that the helmet may have been buried at what was a local shrine on the Briton’s return to the East Midlands, as a gift to the gods.

Each man carried his weapons and shield, some food and camping equipment (such as spare clothes, cooking pot and an axe or spade).

Roman soldiers almost always obeyed orders. They usually fought in lines, marching forward with their shields facing the enemy.

If they were being fired at from above (with arrows or rocks), the men would lift their shields over their heads for protection.

They looked like a tortoise, so they called this formation the testudo (Latin for tortoise).

Fun Facts:

Roman soldiers wore sandals, with iron studs on the leather soles. Hard-wearing, but easy to slip when running on wet stones!

Soldiers far from home got lonely. Roman mothers sent letters and parcels from home to cheer them up.

Roman soldiers wore their swords on the right at first. By the AD 300s most Romans wore their swords on the left – as centurions always had.

Roman cavalrymen rode without stirrups. Stirrups hadn’t been invented.

The dragon on the Welsh flag is said to be a link to dragons on standards carried by Roman soldiers.



Remember the proverb “All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy” (appeared first in James Howell’s Proverbs in English, Italian, French and Spanish -1659). 

We can’t say the Romans were dull, so tomorrow we’ll look at…

Romans 4
Abraham Saved by Faith

1 What shall we say then that Abraham our father, as pertaining to the flesh, hath found?

It meant a lot to be a Roman citizen. This document, dated 7 July 12 A.D., gave citizenship to a soldier named Gemellus.

It meant a lot to be a Roman citizen. This document, dated 7 July 12 A.D., gave citizenship to a soldier named Gemellus.

“Abraham our father” – the Jews of Jesus’ time sued Abraham as an example of justification by works, but Paul holds him up as a shining example of righteousness by faith (see Gal 3:6-9; Heb 11:8-19).

2 For if Abraham were justified by works, he hath whereof to glory; but not before God.

3 For what saith the scripture? Abraham believed God, and it was counted unto him for righteousness.

The reference is to Gen 15:6, where nothing is mentioned about works.

We are not saved through works, but by faith alone – Eph 2:8-9.

“Counted unto him” – Abraham had kept no law, rendered no service and performed no ritual that earned credit to his account before God.  His belief in God, who had made promises to him, was credited to him as righteousness.

Realize Moses has not been born yet.  Therefore, there is no Bible or laws written.  Abraham was righteous to God through the faith he had in Him.

4 Now to him that worketh is the reward not reckoned of grace, but of debt.

A Roman military diploma was a document inscribed in bronze certifying that the holder was honorably discharged from the Roman armed forces and/or had received the grant of Roman citizenship from the emperor as reward for service. The diploma was a notarized copy of an original constitutio (decree) issued by the emperor in Rome, listing by regiment (or unit) the eligible veterans.  The constitutio, recorded on a large bronze plate, was lodged in the military archive at Rome (none such has been found; presumably they were melted down in later times).

A Roman military diploma was a document inscribed in bronze certifying that the holder was honorably discharged from the Roman armed forces and/or had received the grant of Roman citizenship from the emperor as reward for service.
The diploma was a notarized copy of an original constitutio (decree) issued by the emperor in Rome, listing by regiment (or unit) the eligible veterans.
The constitutio, recorded on a large bronze plate, was lodged in the military archive at Rome (none such has been found; presumably they were melted down in later times).

5 But to him that worketh not, but believeth on him that justifieth the ungodly, his faith is counted for righteousness.

6 Even as David also describeth the blessedness of the man, unto whom God imputeth righteousness without works,

4:6-8 – God doesn’t not continue to impute unrighteousness to the sinner who repents, but forgives him when he confesses (see Ps 32:3-5; Eze 18:23, 27-28, 32, 33:14-16).

7 Saying, Blessed are they whose iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are covered.

8 Blessed is the man to whom the Lord will not impute sin.

9 Cometh this blessedness then upon the circumcision only, or upon the uncircumcision also? for we say that faith was reckoned to Abraham for righteousness.

10 How was it then reckoned? when he was in circumcision, or in uncircumcision? Not in circumcision, but in uncircumcision.

11 And he received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he had yet being uncircumcised: that he might be the father of all them that believe, though they be not circumcised; that righteousness might be imputed unto them also:

12 And the father of circumcision to them who are not of the circumcision only, but who also walk in the steps of that faith of our father Abraham, which he had being yet uncircumcised.

“Father of circumcision” – Abraham is also the father of believing Jews.  Thus his story shows that for Jews and Gentile alike there is only one way of justification – the way of faith in Jesus Christ.

13 For the promise, that he should be the heir of the world, was not to Abraham, or to his seed, through the law, but through the righteousness of faith.

Throughout the long and successful history of the Roman military their weapons evolved to meet the demands presented on the battlefield.  The Roman Soldiers were if nothing else effective and they approached battle in a calculated way.  When an enemy employed a weapon successfully against the legions the Romans would often adopt that weapon into their own military.  Regardless of which weapons the Romans marched with the end result was ten centuries of military domination, and the Romans depended upon military might to create and sustain their empire.  So with no further ado, here are the weapons that created, defended and eventually lost the greatest empire the Western world has ever known.

Throughout the long and successful history of the Roman military their weapons evolved to meet the demands presented on the battlefield.
The Roman Soldiers were if nothing else effective and they approached battle in a calculated way.
When an enemy employed a weapon successfully against the legions the Romans would often adopt that weapon into their own military.
Regardless of which weapons the Romans marched with the end result was ten centuries of military domination, and the Romans depended upon military might to create and sustain their empire.
So with no further ado, here are the weapons that created, defended and eventually lost the greatest empire the Western world has ever known.

14 For if they which are of the law be heirs, faith is made void, and the promise made of none effect:

“They which are of the law” – those whose claim to the inheritance is based on the fulfillment of the law.

15 Because the law worketh wrath: for where no law is, there is no transgression.

“Law worketh wrath” – the law, because it reveals sin and even stimulates it, produces wrath, not promise.

“Transgression” – overstepping a clearly defined line.  Where there is no law there is still sin, but it does not have the character of transgression or violation.

16 Therefore it is of faith, that it might be by grace; to the end the promise might be sure to all the seed; not to that only which is of the law, but to that also which is of the faith of Abraham; who is the father of us all,

“Which is of the law” – Jewish Christians that cling to the law and not of faith in Jesus Christ.

“Which is of the faith of Abraham” – Gentile Christians who share Abraham’s faith but who, like Abraham, do not possess the law.

17 (As it is written, I have made thee a father of many nations,) before him whom he believed, even God, who quickeneth the dead, and calleth those things which be not as though they were.

Trajan's Column is a Roman triumphal column in Rome, Italy, that commemorates Roman emperor Trajan's victory in the Dacian Wars.  It was probably constructed under the supervision of the architect Apollodorus of Damascus at the order of the Roman Senate. It is located in Trajan's Forum, built near the Quirinal Hill, north of the Roman Forum.  Completed in 113 A.D., the freestanding column is most famous for its spiral bas relief, which artistically describes the epic wars between the Romans and Dacians (101–102 and 105–106).  Its design has inspired numerous victory columns, both ancient and modern.

Trajan’s Column is a Roman triumphal column in Rome, Italy, that commemorates Roman emperor Trajan’s victory in the Dacian Wars.
It was probably constructed under the supervision of the architect Apollodorus of Damascus at the order of the Roman Senate. It is located in Trajan’s Forum, built near the Quirinal Hill, north of the Roman Forum.
Completed in 113 A.D., the freestanding column is most famous for its spiral bas relief, which artistically describes the epic wars between the Romans and Dacians (101–102 and 105–106).
Its design has inspired numerous victory columns, both ancient and modern.

“Before him” – God considers Abraham the father of Jews and believing Gentiles alike, no matter how others (especially Jews) may see him.

“God, who quickeneth the dead” – the main reference is to the birth of Isaac through Abraham and Sarah, both of whom were far past the age of childbearing.  Secondarily Paul alludes also to the resurrection of Christ.

“Calleth…as though they were” – God has the ability to create out of nothing, as He demonstrated in the birth of Isaac.

18 Who against hope believed in hope, that he might become the father of many nations, according to that which was spoken, So shall thy seed be.

A section from Trajan's Column in Rome shows Roman soldiers. The images cut in stone look like a giant cartoon strip winding round the monument.

A section from Trajan’s Column in Rome shows Roman soldiers. The images cut in stone look like a giant cartoon strip winding round the monument.

“Against hope believed in hope” – when all hope, as a human possibility, failed, Abraham placed his hope in God.

19 And being not weak in faith, he considered not his own body now dead, when he was about an hundred years old, neither yet the deadness of Sara’s womb:

“Being not weak in faith” – Abraham had some anxious moments (see Gen 17:17-18), but God didn’t count these against him because God knew where his heart was.

“Considered not” – faith doesn’t refuse to face reality but looks beyond all difficulties to God and His promises.

20 He staggered not at the promise of God through unbelief; but was strong in faith, giving glory to God;

21 And being fully persuaded that, what he had promised, he was able also to perform.

22 And therefore it was imputed to him for righteousness.

23 Now it was not written for his sake alone, that it was imputed to him;

24 But for us also, to whom it shall be imputed, if we believe on him that raised up Jesus our Lord from the dead;

“But for us also” – as Abraham was justified because he believed in God who brought life from the dead, so we will be justified by believing “on him that raised up Jesus our Lord from the dead.”

25 Who was delivered for our offences, and was raised again for our justification.


…Leisure.


Rebellion and Romans 3 – The World: Guilty Before God

August 28, 2014

The words in Black and Maroon is the text from historical/archaeological facts or the numbered scriptures from the Bible.  
Words in Blue are God – Red is Jesus – Green is Jerry.
Jerry is not a scholar, but a very curious 12 year old boy who loves Jesus and likes to research.
If you have any questions you would like to be answered privately or any subject you would like posted please contact me here.

Rebellion

Why did the British rebel?

By 61 A.D., the Romans were in control of southern Britain. Then they faced their most serious problem to date – rebellion!

Gaius Suetonius Paulinus, also spelled Paullinus, (fl. 1st century) was a Roman general best known as the commander who defeated the rebellion of Boudica. In 59 he was appointed governor of Britain, replacing Quintus Veranius, who had died in office.  He continued Veranius's policy of aggressively subduing the tribes of modern Wales, and was successful for his first two years in the post.  His reputation as a general came to rival that of Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo.  Two future governors served under him: Quintus Petillius Cerialis as legate of Legio IX Hispana, and Gnaeus Julius Agricola as a military tribune attached to II Augusta, but seconded to Suetonius's staff.

Gaius Suetonius Paulinus, also spelled Paullinus, (fl. 1st century) was a Roman general best known as the commander who defeated the rebellion of Boudica.
In 59 he was appointed governor of Britain, replacing Quintus Veranius, who had died in office.
He continued Veranius’s policy of aggressively subduing the tribes of modern Wales, and was successful for his first two years in the post.
His reputation as a general came to rival that of Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo.
Two future governors served under him: Quintus Petillius Cerialis as legate of Legio IX Hispana, and Gnaeus Julius Agricola as a military tribune attached to II Augusta, but seconded to Suetonius’s staff.

It began while the Roman governor Paulinus (the soldier in charge of Roman Britain) was away in North Wales.

He had led the Roman army and got rid of the Druids, the priests of the old Celtic religion.

The trouble started in East Anglia. The Iceni tribe lived there and Prasutagus, the king, was a friend of the Romans.

When he died, he left half his kingdom to the Roman emperor, and half to his wife, Queen Boudicca. The Romans wanted it all.

They also wanted extra taxes and they wanted Boudicca to give up her throne.

How did the Romans get it wrong?

The Romans treated Boudicca and her daughters very badly. They took land and farm animals away from the Iceni.

The Iceni became very angry, and decided to fight back! The Romans ran away. Warriors from other tribes came to join Boudicca and her Iceni army.

Which Roman towns were burned?

The Britons marched to Camulodunum (Colchester), the capital of Roman Britain. Boudicca’s warriors attacked the town.

They burned the new Roman temple, where Roman soldiers and their families had taken shelter.

Next Boudicca led her army towards Londinium (London).

The Romans had made London an important town and port. By now, news of the rebellion had spread.

The Roman governor, Paulinus, dashed from Wales to London, but he did not have enough soldiers to fight Boudicca.

He left London, taking his soldiers with him. Many people fled the city. The Iceni burned London and killed hundreds of people, both Britons and Romans.

A druid was a member of the priestly class among the Celtic peoples of Gaul, Britain, Ireland, and possibly elsewhere during the Iron Age.  Very little is known about the ancient druids. They left no written accounts of themselves and the only evidence is a few descriptions left by Greek, Roman and various scattered authors and artists, as well as stories created by later medieval Irish writers. While archaeological evidence has been uncovered pertaining to the religious practices of the Iron Age people, "not one single artefact or image has been unearthed that can undoubtedly be connected with the ancient Druids.

A druid was a member of the priestly class among the Celtic peoples of Gaul, Britain, Ireland, and possibly elsewhere during the Iron Age.
Very little is known about the ancient druids. They left no written accounts of themselves and the only evidence is a few descriptions left by Greek, Roman and various scattered authors and artists, as well as stories created by later medieval Irish writers.
While archaeological evidence has been uncovered pertaining to the religious practices of the Iron Age people, “not one single artefact or image has been unearthed that can undoubtedly be connected with the ancient Druids.

What did the Roman Army do?

Boudicca turned north to attack another Roman town, Verulamium (St Albans). Paulinus was in the Midlands, preparing for battle.

He called for more soldiers. Part of the Roman army was at Exeter, but its commander refused to come.

Paulinus had to make do with what he could muster – perhaps 10,000 men.

Boudicca may have had ten times more soldiers than the Romans, but the Romans were well trained. There was a great battle.

The only reports of it come from Roman writers, such as Tacitus. Tacitus says most of the Britons were killed.

Rather than be captured, Boudicca drank poison to kill herself. The Romans had won.

What happened after the rebellion?

After Boudicca’s rebellion, people in southern Britain settled down to live under Roman rule.

Many Britons enjoyed living in Roman-style towns with baths and shops.

Some spoke and wrote in Latin (the Roman language), and wore Roman fashions.

Tacitus thought these luxuries were making the people of Britain weak.

Fun Facts:

In a London river, archaeologists found the skulls of people possibly killed by Boudicca’s army.

Boudicca rode in a horse-drawn chariot. Romans said she sliced the heads off her enemies, as she charged into battle.



They say that Rome wasn’t made in a day.  It was made out of centuries of pure barbaric  hatred and control.

Tomorrow we’ll look at…

Romans 3
The World: Guilty Before God

1 What advantage then hath the Jew? or what profit is there of circumcision?

East Anglia: with the administrative counties of Norfolk and Suffolk (in red) to the north and south respectively and Cambridgeshire (in pink) to the west.  Essex, parts of which are sometimes considered part of East Anglia, is highlighted in white.

East Anglia: with the administrative counties of Norfolk and Suffolk (in red) to the north and south respectively and Cambridgeshire (in pink) to the west.
Essex, parts of which are sometimes considered part of East Anglia, is highlighted in white.

2 Much every way: chiefly, because that unto them were committed the oracles of God.

3 For what if some did not believe? shall their unbelief make the faith of God without effect?

“Faith” – the Greek word means either “faith’ or “faithfulness.”  Here it means “faithfulness.”  God is faithful to His promises wad would punish Israel for its unbelief.

4 God forbid: yea, let God be true, but every man a liar; as it is written, That thou mightest be justified in thy sayings, and mightest overcome when thou art judged.

God’s punishment of sin exhibits His faithfulness to His righteous character. 

Many people do not believe that God will punish people in the end, that this is just a scare tactic.  If this was true then God would not be faithful to His believers, His words would be moot, He would be no better than the devil himself. 

Oh no, God is exactly who He says He is and He will do exactly as He says He will.

5 But if our unrighteousness commend the righteousness of God, what shall we say? Is God unrighteous who taketh vengeance? (I speak as a man)

“I speak as a man” – or “I am using a human argument,” in the sense of its weakness and absurdity.

The Iceni /aɪˈsiːnaɪ/ or Eceni were a Brythonic tribe in Britannia (or Britain) who inhabited an area corresponding roughly to the modern-day county of Norfolk from the 1st century B.C. to the 1st century A.D.  They were bordered by the Corieltauvi to the west, and the Catuvellauni and Trinovantes to the south.  The tribe turned into a civitas during the Roman occupation of Britannia. Their capital was Venta Icenorum, located at modern-day Caistor St Edmund. Julius Caesar described the Iceni as Cenimagni, who surrendered to him during his second expedition to Britain in 54 B.C. The Cenimagni may have been a branch of the Iceni or it could be a corruption of Iceni Magni meaning "Great Iceni.

The Iceni /aɪˈsiːnaɪ/ or Eceni were a Brythonic tribe in Britannia (or Britain) who inhabited an area corresponding roughly to the modern-day county of Norfolk from the 1st century B.C. to the 1st century A.D.
They were bordered by the Corieltauvi to the west, and the Catuvellauni and Trinovantes to the south.
The tribe turned into a civitas during the Roman occupation of Britannia. Their capital was Venta Icenorum, located at modern-day Caistor St Edmund.
Julius Caesar described the Iceni as Cenimagni, who surrendered to him during his second expedition to Britain in 54 B.C. The Cenimagni may have been a branch of the Iceni or it could be a corruption of Iceni Magni meaning “Great Iceni.

6 God forbid: for then how shall God judge the world?

7 For if the truth of God hath more abounded through my lie unto his glory; why yet am I also judged as a sinner?

8 And not rather, (as we be slanderously reported, and as some affirm that we say,) Let us do evil, that good may come? whose damnation is just.

9 What then? are we better than they? No, in no wise: for we have before proved both Jews and Gentiles, that they are all under sin;

10 As it is written, There is none righteous, no, not one:

3:10-18 – a collection of Old Testament quotations that underscores Paul’s charge that both Jews and Gentiles are under the power of sin.  Several factors explain why the citations are not always verbatim:

1. New Testament quotations sometimes gave the general sense and were to meant to be word-for-word.

2. Quotation marks were not used in Greek.

3. The quotations were often taken from the Greek translation (the Septuagint) of the Hebrew Bible.

4. Sometimes the New Testament writer, in order to drive home his point, would purposely (under the inspiration of the Holy Ghost) adapt an Old Testament passage or combine two or more passages.

11 There is none that understandeth, there is none that seeketh after God.

Prasutagus may have been one of the eleven kings who surrendered to Claudius following the Roman conquest in 43, or he may have been installed as king following the defeat of a rebellion of the Iceni in 47 A.D. In any case, as an ally of Rome his tribe were allowed to remain nominally independent, and to ensure this Prasutagus named the Roman emperor as co-heir to his kingdom, along with his two daughters.  Tacitus says he lived a long and prosperous life, but when he died, the Romans ignored his will and took over, depriving the nobles of their lands and plundering the kingdom.  Boudica was flogged and their daughters raped. Roman financiers called in their loans. All this led to the revolt of the Iceni, under the leadership of Boudica, in 60 or 61. Coins have been found in Suffolk inscribed SVB ESVPRASTO ESICO FECIT, "under Esuprastus Esico made (this)" in Latin. Some archaeologists believe that Esuprastus was the true name of the king Tacitus calls Prasutagus, while others think he was a different person.

Prasutagus may have been one of the eleven kings who surrendered to Claudius following the Roman conquest in 43, or he may have been installed as king following the defeat of a rebellion of the Iceni in 47 A.D.
In any case, as an ally of Rome his tribe were allowed to remain nominally independent, and to ensure this Prasutagus named the Roman emperor as co-heir to his kingdom, along with his two daughters.
Tacitus says he lived a long and prosperous life, but when he died, the Romans ignored his will and took over, depriving the nobles of their lands and plundering the kingdom.
Boudica was flogged and their daughters raped. Roman financiers called in their loans.
All this led to the revolt of the Iceni, under the leadership of Boudica, in 60 or 61.
Coins have been found in Suffolk inscribed SVB ESVPRASTO ESICO FECIT, “under Esuprastus Esico made (this)” in Latin. Some archaeologists believe that Esuprastus was the true name of the king Tacitus calls Prasutagus, while others think he was a different person.

12 They are all gone out of the way, they are together become unprofitable; there is none that doeth good, no, not one.

13 Their throat is an open sepulcher; with their tongues they have used deceit; the poison of asps is under their lips:

“Open sepulcher” – expressing the corruption of the heart.

14 Whose mouth is full of cursing and bitterness:

15 Their feet are swift to shed blood:

16 Destruction and misery are in their ways:

17 And the way of peace have they not known:

18 There is no fear of God before their eyes.

“Fear of God” – awesome reverence for God; the source of all godliness.

19 Now we know that what things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law: that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God.

“They who are under the law” – the Jews.  They are under the law by choice, this is not God’s choosing.

20 Therefore by the deeds of the law there shall no flesh be justified in his sight: for by the law is the knowledge of sin.

21 But now the righteousness of God without the law is manifested, being witnessed by the law and the prophets;

22 Even the righteousness of God which is by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe: for there is no difference:

3:22-23 – “For there is no difference…glory of God” – a parenthetical thought: “All them that believe” (v. 23) are “justified freely” (v. 24), not “all have sinned” (v. 23) are “justified freely” (v. 24).  Therefore, “justified” goes with “believe,” not with “sinned.”

23 For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God;

Boudica , also known as Boadicea, and known in Welsh as Buddug (60 or 61 A.D.) was queen of the British Iceni tribe, a Celtic tribe who led an uprising against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire. Boudica's husband Prasutagus was ruler of the Iceni tribe, who had ruled as a nominally independent ally of Rome, and had left his kingdom jointly to his daughters and the Roman Emperor in his will.  However, when he died, his will was ignored and the kingdom was annexed as if conquered.  Boudica was flogged, her daughters were raped, and Roman financiers called in their loans. In 60 or 61 A.D., while the Roman governor Gaius Suetonius Paulinus was leading a campaign on the island of Anglesey off the northwest coast of Wales, Boudica led the Iceni as well as the Trinovantes and others in revolt. They destroyed Camulodunum, which is modern Colchester. Camulodunum was earlier the capital of the Trinovantes, but at that time was a colonia—a settlement for discharged Roman soldiers, as well as the site of a temple to the former Emperor Claudius.  Upon hearing the news of the revolt, Suetonius hurried to Londinium (modern London), the twenty-year-old commercial settlement that was the rebels' next target. The Romans, having concluded that they did not have the numbers to defend the settlement, evacuated and abandoned Londinium. Boudica led 100,000 Iceni, Trinovantes and others to fight the Legio IX Hispana and burned and destroyed Londinium, and Verulamium (modern-day St Albans). An estimated 70,000–80,000 Romans and British were killed in the three cities by those led by Boudica.  Suetonius, meanwhile, regrouped his forces in the West Midlands, and despite being heavily outnumbered, defeated the Britons in the Battle of Watling Street. The crisis caused the Emperor Nero to consider withdrawing all Roman forces from Britain, but Suetonius' eventual victory over Boudica confirmed Roman control of the province.  Boudica then either killed herself so she would not be captured, or fell ill and died. The extant sources, Tacitus and Cassius Dio, differ.

Boudica , also known as Boadicea, and known in Welsh as Buddug (60 or 61 A.D.) was queen of the British Iceni tribe, a Celtic tribe who led an uprising against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire.
Boudica’s husband Prasutagus was ruler of the Iceni tribe, who had ruled as a nominally independent ally of Rome, and had left his kingdom jointly to his daughters and the Roman Emperor in his will.
However, when he died, his will was ignored and the kingdom was annexed as if conquered.
Boudica was flogged, her daughters were raped, and Roman financiers called in their loans.
In 60 or 61 A.D., while the Roman governor Gaius Suetonius Paulinus was leading a campaign on the island of Anglesey off the northwest coast of Wales, Boudica led the Iceni as well as the Trinovantes and others in revolt.
They destroyed Camulodunum, which is modern Colchester. Camulodunum was earlier the capital of the Trinovantes, but at that time was a colonia—a settlement for discharged Roman soldiers, as well as the site of a temple to the former Emperor Claudius.
Upon hearing the news of the revolt, Suetonius hurried to Londinium (modern London), the twenty-year-old commercial settlement that was the rebels’ next target.
The Romans, having concluded that they did not have the numbers to defend the settlement, evacuated and abandoned Londinium. Boudica led 100,000 Iceni, Trinovantes and others to fight the Legio IX Hispana and burned and destroyed Londinium, and Verulamium (modern-day St Albans).
An estimated 70,000–80,000 Romans and British were killed in the three cities by those led by Boudica.
Suetonius, meanwhile, regrouped his forces in the West Midlands, and despite being heavily outnumbered, defeated the Britons in the Battle of Watling Street.
The crisis caused the Emperor Nero to consider withdrawing all Roman forces from Britain, but Suetonius’ eventual victory over Boudica confirmed Roman control of the province.
Boudica then either killed herself so she would not be captured, or fell ill and died. The extant sources, Tacitus and Cassius Dio, differ.

“Glory of God” – the glory of God is what God intended us to be.  The glory that man had before the fall (see Gen 1:26-28; Ps 8:5; cf. Eph 4:24; Col 3:10). 

At this time there is no glory in us, but the believer will obtain that glory through their faith in Jesus Christ.  In the end we will be what God made us to be prior to the fall of Adam and Eve.

24 Being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus:

“Justified” – Paul uses the Greek verb for “justified” 27 times, mostly in Romans and Galatians. 

The term describes what happens when someone believes in Christ as his Savior: From the negative viewpoint, God declares the person to be not guilty; from the positive viewpoint, He declares him to be righteous.

God cancels the guilt of the person’s sin and credits righteousness to him.  Paul emphasizes two points in this regard:

1. No one lives a perfectly good, holy, righteous life.  On the contrary “there is none righteous” (v. 10) and “all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God” (v. 23). “By the deeds of the law there shall no flesh be justified in his sight” (v. 20).

2. But even though all are sinners and not sons, God will declare everyone who puts his trust in Jesus not guilty but righteous. 

This legal declaration is valid because Christ died to pay the penalty for our sin and lived a life of perfect righteousness that can in turn be imputed to us.  This is the central theme of Romans and is stated in the theme verse 1:17 (“the righteousness of God”).

Christ’s righteousness (His obedience to God’s law and His sacrificial death) will be credited to believers as their own.  Paul uses the Greek word for credited (reckoned, imputed, or counted) 11 times in chapter 4 alone.

25 Whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness for the remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God;

“To be a propitiation” – or “as the One who would turn aside God’s wrath, taking away sin.”  The Greek for this phrase speaks of a sacrifice that satisfies the righteous wrath of God: Without this appeasement all people are justify destined for eternal punishment (1 Jn 2:2).

26 To declare, I say, at this time his righteousness: that he might be just, and the justifier of him which believeth in Jesus.

The above bronze head, usually said to be of Claudius (though Nero is also a possibility), was found in the River Alde at the village of Rendham, Suffolk, in 1907.  The head has been broken away from a statue. There is no real evidence, but a widely accepted hunch is that the statue was at Camulodunum; that it was destroyed by the rebels and the head carried off as a trophy; perhaps being hurled into the river as an offering to the gods.  In 1979, part of the leg of a bronze horse was found at Ashill, Norfolk. Apparently, metallurgical analysis has suggested that head and leg could both have come from the same statue.

The above bronze head, usually said to be of Claudius (though Nero is also a possibility), was found in the River Alde at the village of Rendham, Suffolk, in 1907.
The head has been broken away from a statue. There is no real evidence, but a widely accepted hunch is that the statue was at Camulodunum; that it was destroyed by the rebels and the head carried off as a trophy; perhaps being hurled into the river as an offering to the gods.
In 1979, part of the leg of a bronze horse was found at Ashill, Norfolk. Apparently, metallurgical analysis has suggested that head and leg could both have come from the same statue.

27 Where is boasting then? It is excluded. By what law? of works? Nay: but by the law of faith.

28 Therefore we conclude that a man is justified by faith without the deeds of the law.

“By faith” – when Luther translated this passage, he added the word “alone,” which, though not in the Greek, accurately reflects the meaning.

29 Is he the God of the Jews only? is he not also of the Gentiles? Yes, of the Gentiles also:

30 Seeing it is one God, which shall justify the circumcision by faith, and uncircumcision through faith.

31 Do we then make void the law through faith? God forbid: yea, we establish the law.

Paul anticipated being charged with antinomianism (against law): If justification comes by faith alone, then is not the law rejected?  He gives a more complete answer in chapters 6-7 and reasserts the validity of the law in 13:8-10; cf. also 1 Tim 1:8-10.


…The Roman Army.


The City of Rome and Romans 2 – God’s Principles of Judgment

August 27, 2014

The words in Black and Maroon is the text from historical/archaeological facts or the numbered scriptures from the Bible.  
Words in Blue are God – Red is Jesus – Green is Jerry.
Jerry is not a scholar, but a very curious 12 year old boy who loves Jesus and likes to research.
If you have any questions you would like to be answered privately or any subject you would like posted please contact me here.

The City of Rome

How did Rome get its name?

Rome is now the capital city of Italy. 2,000 years ago it was the center of the Roman Empire. Building started in 753 BC. The Romans had a story to explain how Rome began.

Capitoline Wolf. Traditional scholarship says the wolf-figure is Etruscan, 5th century B.C., with figures of Romulus and Remus added in the 15th century A.D. by Antonio Pollaiuolo.  Recent studies suggest that the wolf may be a medieval sculpture dating from the 13th century A.D.

Capitoline Wolf. Traditional scholarship says the wolf-figure is Etruscan, 5th century B.C., with figures of Romulus and Remus added in the 15th century A.D. by Antonio Pollaiuolo.
Recent studies suggest that the wolf may be a medieval sculpture dating from the 13th century A.D.

Twin boys, Romulus and Remus, were the sons of Mars (the Roman god or war). An evil uncle took them as babies from their mother and threw them into the River Tiber to drown.

The babies floated to land, and a mother wolf fed and cared for them. Later a herdsman looked after the twins until they grew up.

Years later, Mars told his twin sons to build a city where they had been found. The city was Rome. One day, Remus made fun of the wall Romulus had built around the city. The twins argued, fought, and Romulus killed Remus.

Today, historians and archaeologists agree that people were living in Rome long before 753 B.C., but the legend is one of the most famous in world history.

How was Rome ruled?

The people of Rome were farmers and herders. For a time, they were under the control of their neighbors, the Etruscans.

Rome became a rich city, ruled by kings. In 509 B.C., the Romans drove out their last king, Tarquin the Proud. Rome then became a republic.

The republic was ruled by a Senate. Rich men, called senators, ran the government. Poor men (called plebeians) had much less power.

Mars was the god of war, and one of the most prominent and worshipped gods.  In early Roman history he was a god of spring, growth in nature, and fertility, and the protector of cattle.  Mars is also mentioned as a chthonic god (earth-god) and this could explain why he became a god of death and finally a god of war. He is the son of Jupiter and Juno.  According to some sources, Mars is the father of Romulus and Remus by the Vestal Ilia (Rhea Silvia).  Because he was the father of these legendary founders of Rome, and thus of the Roman people, the Romans styled themselves 'sons of Mars'.

Mars was the god of war, and one of the most prominent and worshipped gods.
In early Roman history he was a god of spring, growth in nature, and fertility, and the protector of cattle.
Mars is also mentioned as a chthonic god (earth-god) and this could explain why he became a god of death and finally a god of war. He is the son of Jupiter and Juno.
According to some sources, Mars is the father of Romulus and Remus by the Vestal Ilia (Rhea Silvia).
Because he was the father of these legendary founders of Rome, and thus of the Roman people, the Romans styled themselves ‘sons of Mars’.

The plebeians fought for fairer treatment. A plebeian, who was a free man (someone who was not a slave), could be a Roman citizen.

People in lands conquered by the Romans could become citizens too. Women and slaves though, could not be citizens – so they could not vote in elections.

The Senate could not always control the Roman army. Army generals sometimes fought one another. Rome’s best general was Julius Caesar.

He lived in the 1st century B.C. and invaded Britain twice. Caesar came close to being emperor of Rome, but he was murdered in 44 B.C. By then, Rome was more than a city. It was the capital of an empire.

The Romans ruled lands from France to North Africa. You can see this in the map below.

Who were the Roman emperors?

A Roman emperor was the man who ruled over the empire. The first Emperor ruled Rome after years of fighting between rival leaders.

His name was Octavian. He took a new name, Augustus, when he became Emperor in 27 B.C.

Augustus brought peace after years of fighting. Not all the emperors were good and wise. Some were terrible. Some wanted to be gods.

The emperor had a troop of special soldiers to protect him. They were called the Praetorian Guard.

However, some of the bad emperors were so unpopular that their Praetorian Guards killed them!

Fun Facts:

In his portraits, Julius Caesar wore a wreath on his head to hide his baldness!

A map of the Roman Empire, at the end of Julius Caesar's rule.

A map of the Roman Empire, at the end of Julius Caesar’s rule.

The Emperor Claudius rode an elephant when he visited Britain in AD 43. People in Britain were amazed to see such a sight.

To be a Roman citizen, or even an Emperor, you did not have to be born in Rome. The Emperor Septimius Severus was an African, from Libya.


Tomorrow we’ll look more into the Romans in regard to…

 

Romans 2
God’s Principles of Judgment

1 Therefore thou art inexcusable, O man, whosoever thou art that judgest: for wherein thou judgest another, thou condemnest thyself; for thou that judgest doest the same things.

The Forum was Ancient Rome's meeting place, with the Senate House and temples. These buildings are now ruins, but still impressive.

The Forum was Ancient Rome’s meeting place, with the Senate House and temples. These buildings are now ruins, but still impressive.

2:1-16 – in this section Paul sets forth principles that govern God’s judgment.  God judges according to:

* Truth,

* Deeds, and

* The light a person has.

These principles lay the groundwork for Paul’s discussion of the guilt of the Jews.

“Inexcusable” – Paul’s teaching about judging agrees with that of Jesus, who did not condemn judging as such, but hypocritical judging.

“Whosoever…that judgest” – a warning that had special relevance for Jews, who were inclined to look down on Gentiles because of their ignorance of God’s revelation in the Old Testament and because of their immoral lives.

2 But we are sure that the judgment of God is according to truth against them which commit such things.

3 And thinkest thou this, O man, that judgest them which do such things, and doest the same, that thou shalt escape the judgment of God?

Jesus also condemned this attitude (Matt 7:3).

4 Or despisest thou the riches of his goodness and forbearance and longsuffering; not knowing that the goodness of God leadeth thee to repentance?

Julius Caesar was an ambitious general. Fearing he might make himself Rome's king, Caesar's enemies killed him in the Forum in 44 B.C.

Julius Caesar was an ambitious general. Fearing he might make himself Rome’s king, Caesar’s enemies killed him in the Forum in 44 B.C.

The purpose of God’s kindness is to give opportunity for repentance (2 Pet 3:9).  The Jews had misconstrued His patience to be a lack of intent to judge.

5 But after thy hardness and impenitent heart treasurest up unto thyself wrath against the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God;

“Day of wrath” – judgment at the end of time in contrast to the judgment discussed in 1:18-32.

6 Who will render to every man according to his deeds:

2:6-8 – Paul is not contradicting his continual emphasis in all his writings, including Romans that a person is saved not by what he does but by faith in what Jesus does for him.

Rather, he is discussing the principle of judgment according to deeds.  If anyone persists in doing good deeds he will receive eternal life. 

No one can do this spotlessly (accept Jesus), but if anyone could, God would give him life, since God judges according to what a person does.

7 To them who by patient continuance in well doing seek for glory and honor and immortality, eternal life:

This silver coin was made for Rome's first emperor Augustus, about 28 BC..

This silver coin was made for Rome’s first emperor Augustus, about 28 B.C.

8 But unto them that are contentious, and do not obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness, indignation and wrath,

9 Tribulation and anguish, upon every soul of man that doeth evil, of the Jew first, and also of the Gentile;

“Of the Jews first” – with spiritual privilege comes spiritual responsibility (see Amos 3:2; Lk 12:48). 

It is said that nothing is free in this world, and this is true.  Yet, God is not of this world and His salvation/everlasting life is free, but so is death. 

You don’t have to do anything to obtain salvation, all you have to do is believe in Jesus Christ.

Spiritual privilege is not free, it can only be obtained through absolute trust in God and absolute means always.

10 But glory, honor, and peace, to every man that worketh good, to the Jew first, and also to the Gentile:

11 For there is no respect of persons with God.

12 For as many as have sinned without law shall also perish without law: and as many as have sinned in the law shall be judged by the law;

Caligula was emperor of Rome from AD 12 - 24. Written of as cruel and insane, it is said that he tried to make his horse, Incitatus a consul (head of government) and a priest.

Caligula was emperor of Rome from AD 12 – 24. Written of as cruel and insane, it is said that he tried to make his horse, Incitatus a consul (head of government) and a priest.

13 (For not the hearers of the law are just before God, but the doers of the law shall be justified.

14 For when the Gentiles, which have not the law, do by nature the things contained in the law, these, having not the law, are a law unto themselves:

“Things contained in the law” – does not mean that pagans fulfilled the requirements of the Mosaic law but refers to practices in pagan society that agreed with the law, such as caring for the sick and elderly, honoring parents and condemning adultery.

“Law unto themselves” – the moral nature of pagans, enlightened by conscience functioned for them as the Mosaic law did for the Jews.

15 Which shew the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and their thoughts the mean while accusing or else excusing one another;)

16 In the day when God shall judge the secrets of men by Jesus Christ according to my gospel.

17 Behold, thou art called a Jew, and restest in the law, and makest thy boast of God,

2:17-24 – the presentation takes the form of a dialogue.  Paul knew how a self-righteous Jews thought, for he had been one himself.  

He cites one advantage after another that Jews considered to be unqualified assets.

Nero was emperor of Rome from AD 54 - 68. He killed his mother, and was blamed for a fire that burned down Rome.

Nero was emperor of Rome from AD 54 – 68. He killed his mother, and was blamed for a fire that burned down Rome.

But those assets became liabilities when there was no correspondence between profession and practices.  Paul applied to the Jew the principles of judgment set forth in vv. 1-16.

18 And knowest his will, and approvest the things that are more excellent, being instructed out of the law;

19 And art confident that thou thyself art a guide of the blind, a light of them which are in darkness,

2:19-20 – “The blind…babes’ – Gentiles, to whom Jews regarded themselves as vastly superior because they (the Jews) possessed the Mosaic law.  And they still do today.

20 An instructor of the foolish, a teacher of babes, which hast the form of knowledge and of the truth in the law.

21 Thou therefore which teachest another, teachest thou not thyself? thou that preachest a man should not steal, dost thou steal?

22 Thou that sayest a man should not commit adultery, dost thou commit adultery? thou that abhorrest idols, dost thou commit sacrilege?

“Dost thou commit sacrilege?” – Lit. “rob temples.”  Large amounts of wealth were often stored in pagan temples.

23 Thou that makest thy boast of the law, through breaking the law dishonourest thou God?

A statue of Septimius Severus. He was the first African emperor of Rome (AD 192 - 211). He died in Britain, at York.

A statue of Septimius Severus. He was the first African emperor of Rome (A.D. 192 – 211). He died in Britain, at York.

24 For the name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles through you, as it is written.

25 For circumcision verily profiteth, if thou keep the law: but if thou be a breaker of the law, thy circumcision is made uncircumcision.

“Circumcision” – a sign of the covenant that God made with Israel and a pledge of the covenant blessing.  The Jews had come to regard circumcision as a guarantee of God’s favor.

26 Therefore if the uncircumcision keep the righteousness of the law, shall not his uncircumcision be counted for circumcision?

27 And shall not uncircumcision which is by nature, if it fulfil the law, judge thee, who by the letter and circumcision dost transgress the law?866-end

If a Gentile’s deeds excelled those of a Jew in righteousness, that very fact condemned the Jew, who had an immeasurably better set of standards in the law of Moses.

28 For he is not a Jew, which is one outwardly; neither is that circumcision, which is outward in the flesh:

29 But he is a Jew, which is one inwardly; and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit, and not in the letter; whose praise is not of men, but of God.

“In the Spirit” – the true sign of belonging to God is not an outward mark on the physical body, but the regenerating power of the Holy Ghost within – what Paul meant by circumcision…of the heart” (see Deut 30:6).


…Rebellion.


Homosexuality in the Ancient World and Romans 1 – Thanksgiving and Prayers

August 26, 2014

The words in Black and Maroon is the text from historical/archaeological facts or the numbered scriptures from the Bible.  
Words in Blue are God – Red is Jesus – Green is Jerry.
Jerry is not a scholar, but a very curious 12 year old boy who loves Jesus and likes to research.
If you have any questions you would like to be answered privately or any subject you would like posted please contact me here.

Homosexuality in the Ancient World

In Rom 1:24-32 Paul described the depravity of the Gentiles. He cited homosexuality as the prime example and proof of their reprobation.

Young man and teenager engaging in intercrural sex, fragment of a black-figure Attic cup, 550 B.C.–525 B.C. In classical antiquity, writers such as Herodotus, Plato, Xenophon, Athenaeus and many others explored aspects of same-sex love in ancient Greece.  The most widespread and socially significant form of same-sex sexual relations in ancient Greece was between adult men and pubescent or adolescent boys, known as pederasty (marriages in Ancient Greece between men and women were also age structured, with men in their 30s commonly taking wives in their early teens).  Though homosexual relationships between adult men did exist, at least one member of each of these relationships flouted social conventions by assuming a passive sexual role.  It is unclear how such relations between women were regarded in the general society, but examples do exist as far back as the time of Sappho.

Young man and teenager engaging in intercrural sex, fragment of a black-figure Attic cup, 550 B.C.–525 B.C.
In classical antiquity, writers such as Herodotus, Plato, Xenophon, Athenaeus and many others explored aspects of same-sex love in ancient Greece.
The most widespread and socially significant form of same-sex sexual relations in ancient Greece was between adult men and pubescent or adolescent boys, known as pederasty (marriages in Ancient Greece between men and women were also age structured, with men in their 30s commonly taking wives in their early teens).
Though homosexual relationships between adult men did exist, at least one member of each of these relationships flouted social conventions by assuming a passive sexual role.
It is unclear how such relations between women were regarded in the general society, but examples do exist as far back as the time of Sappho.

In this behavior they demonstrated the reality that rejecting God leads to a perversion of everything that is good and right.

Indeed, widespread homosexuality remains irrefutable proof that a culture stands under divine judgment.

Today, however, many interpreters assert that reading Rom 1 in light of the cultural backdrop of the Greco-Roman world reveals that Paul was not really condemning homosexuality itself but was reproving a particularly lustful, promiscuous version of this sexual inclination.

In other words, according to these scholars homosexuality in the context of a caring, loving relationship is not only acceptable but outside the realm of Paul’s concern.

This interpretation is based upon a distortion of what we know of ancient practices and beliefs.

Homosexuality was extremely common in the Greek world and by New Testament times had become widespread in the Roman world as well.

Then, as now, there were homosexual orgies, but many other varieties of homosexual behavior were practiced as well, and we cannot say with certainty that pagan homosexual behavior was strictly of the orgiastic type.

Greek men often engaged in homosexual relationships with adolescent boys; many, in fact, regarded this as a coming-of-age experience. 

Some homosexual attraction was described in highly romantic terms; both male and female poets celebrated their love for members of their own sex (Sappho, c. 630 B.C, was the most famous poet of this genre, although the precise nature of her relationship with the women of her poems is debated).

The Roman emperor Hadrian was so overcome with passionate love for a young man named Antinous that when the object of his affection drowned, the grief-stricken emperor decreed that he be worshiped as a god.

Heroic portrayal of Nisus and Euryalus (1827) by Jean-Baptiste Roman: Vergil described their love as pius in keeping with Roman morality. Same-sex attitudes and behaviors in ancient Rome often differ markedly from those of the contemporary West.  Latin lacks words that would precisely translate "homosexual" and "heterosexual." The primary dichotomy of ancient Roman sexuality was active/dominant/masculine and passive/submissive/"feminized".  Roman society was patriarchal, and the freeborn male citizen possessed political liberty (libertas) and the right to rule both himself and those of his household (familia). "Virtue" (virtus) was seen as an active quality through which a man (vir) defined himself.  The conquest mentality and "cult of virility" shaped same-sex relations.

Heroic portrayal of Nisus and Euryalus (1827) by Jean-Baptiste Roman: Vergil described their love as pius in keeping with Roman morality.
Same-sex attitudes and behaviors in ancient Rome often differ markedly from those of the contemporary West.
Latin lacks words that would precisely translate “homosexual” and “heterosexual.” The primary dichotomy of ancient Roman sexuality was active/dominant/ masculine and passive/ submissive/”feminized.”
Roman society was patriarchal, and the freeborn male citizen possessed political liberty (libertas) and the right to rule both himself and those of his household (familia). “Virtue” (virtus) was seen as an active quality through which a man (vir) defined himself.
The conquest mentality and “cult of virility” shaped same-sex relations.

The Jews, by contrast, regarded homosexuals as by nature depraved – an attitude founded upon Biblical texts such as Lev 18:22.  

Jewish writings of this period treated homosexual activity as meriting death and damnation.

Paul, far from dissenting from this viewpoint, rigorously endorsed it (1Cor 6:9).

It is important to note, however, that neither Paul nor his Jewish contemporaries distinguished between lawful and illicit homosexuality.

For them, such a sexual preference was by nature wrong in any context.

Evidence exists that even the Greeks may have been aware that this behavior was deviant. Aristophanes, the Greek comic poet, mocked homosexual behavior (even as he employed it as a comic device).

For example, in Women at the Thesmophoria he ruthlessly ridiculed the notorious homosexuality of the poet Agathon.

It would be an overstatement to claim that Aristophanes opposed homosexual practice, but his comedy betrayed uneasy conscience about such behavior1 in the culture he inhabited.

Plato, on the hand, in his earlier dialogues spoke approvingly of homosexual behavior.

Yet near the end of his career he observed in his Laws that homosexual intercourse was widely recognized to be unnatural.


God has frowned on homosexuality from the beginning of time.  He made it very clear when He created us, that sex would be practiced ONLY between a man and a woman (Lev 18:23, Lev 20:13).867-j-1

Throughout the entire New Testament Paul speaks strongly against fornication, but in the following chapter he speaks against homosexuality (vs. 22-32) and there is no question of what he is saying.

I figure since we’re in the Book of Romans, tomorrow we’ll start a 12 day study on…

Romans 1
Thanksgiving and Prayers

1 Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated unto the gospel of God,

2 (Which he had promised afore by his prophets in the holy scriptures,)

: Two men and a woman making love; Pompeian wall painting, from one of the Therms (baths), the south wall of the changing rooms - painted around 79 B.C.

: Two men and a woman making love; Pompeian wall painting, from one of the Therms (baths), the south wall of the changing rooms – painted around 79 B.C.

3 Concerning his Son Jesus Christ our Lord, which was made of the seed of David according to the flesh;

4 And declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead:

5 By whom we have received grace and apostleship, for obedience to the faith among all nations, for his name:

6 Among whom are ye also the called of Jesus Christ:

7 To all that be in Rome, beloved of God, called to be saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.

8 First, I thank my God through Jesus Christ for you all, that your faith is spoken of throughout the whole world.

9 For God is my witness, whom I serve with my spirit in the gospel of his Son, that without ceasing I make mention of you always in my prayers;

10 Making request, if by any means now at length I might have a prosperous journey by the will of God to come unto you.

11 For I long to see you, that I may impart unto you some spiritual gift, to the end ye may be established;

12 That is, that I may be comforted together with you by the mutual faith both of you and me.

Sappho was an enormously influential musician and lyric poet (Plato called her "the tenth Muse") who flourished around 600 B.C. on the island of Lesbos off the coast of Asia Minor.  She composed in the Aeolic dialect, an eastern form of Greek that dropped the "h" sounds from the beginning of words and often used long ᾱ where Attic Greek had η.  In general, Aeolic sounded more archaic, stately and musical than Attic Greek, somewhat like the English spoken in the Deep South of the United States in comparison with the standard pronunciation used in the broadcast industry. Sappho has always been famed for her love poetry, but she was first and foremost a musician of genius, and we have it on good authority that she invented the Mixolydian mode, which modern blues and rock guitarists use for the majority of their music, in the guise of the pentatonic scale with the addition of the "blue note" or flatted fifth.  So it is possible to trace a musical influence from Sappho to Led Zeppelin, traveling through Africa and Mississippi along the way.

Sappho was an enormously influential musician and lyric poet (Plato called her “the tenth Muse”) who flourished around 600 B.C. on the island of Lesbos off the coast of Asia Minor.
She composed in the Aeolic dialect, an eastern form of Greek that dropped the “h” sounds from the beginning of words and often used long ᾱ where Attic Greek had η.
In general, Aeolic sounded more archaic, stately and musical than Attic Greek, somewhat like the English spoken in the Deep South of the United States in comparison with the standard pronunciation used in the broadcast industry.
Sappho has always been famed for her love poetry, but she was first and foremost a musician of genius, and we have it on good authority that she invented the Mixolydian mode, which modern blues and rock guitarists use for the majority of their music, in the guise of the pentatonic scale with the addition of the “blue note” or flatted fifth.
So it is possible to trace a musical influence from Sappho to Led Zeppelin, traveling through Africa and Mississippi along the way.

13 Now I would not have you ignorant, brethren, that oftentimes I purposed to come unto you, (but was let hitherto,) that I might have some fruit among you also, even as among other Gentiles.

14 I am debtor both to the Greeks, and to the Barbarians; both to the wise, and to the unwise.

15 So, as much as in me is, I am ready to preach the gospel to you that are at Rome also.

16 For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ: for it is the power of God unto salvation to everyone that believeth; to the Jew first, and also to the Greek.

1:16-17 – verses 16 and 17 is the theme for the entire book of Romans.

17 For therein is the righteousness of God revealed from faith to faith: as it is written, The just shall live by faith.

18 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth in unrighteousness;

1:18-3:20 – in developing the theme of righteousness from God, Paul sets the stage by showing that all have sinned and therefore need the righteousness that only God can provide.  He shows the sin of the Gentiles and the sin of the Jews and then summarizes the sin of all.

1:18-20 – no one, not even one who has not heard of the Bible or of Christ has an excuse for not honoring God because the whole created world reveals Him. 

For example, if you don’t know the laws and you break them you will still be punished – “Ignorance of the law is no excuse.”

“Wrath of God” – not a petulant, irrational burst of anger, such as humans often exhibit, but a holy, just revulsion against what is contrary to and opposes His holy nature and will.

“Is revealed” – God’s wrath is not limited to the end-time judgment of the wicked (1 Thes 1:10; Rev 19:15, 20:11-15).  Here the wrath of God is His abandonment of the wicked to their sins.

19 Because that which may be known of God is manifest in them; for God hath shewed it unto them.

20 For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse:

Hadrian 24 January, 76 AD – 10 July, 138 AD) was Roman Emperor from 117 to 138.  He re-built the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma. He is also known for building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of Roman Britain.  Hadrian was regarded by some as a humanist and was philhellene in most of his tastes. He is regarded as one of the Five Good Emperors.

Hadrian 24 January, 76 AD – 10 July, 138 AD) was Roman Emperor from 117 to 138.
He re-built the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma. He is also known for building Hadrian’s Wall, which marked the northern limit of Roman Britain.
Hadrian was regarded by some as a humanist and was philhellene in most of his tastes. He is regarded as one of the Five Good Emperors.

21 Because that, when they knew God, they glorified him not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened.

22 Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools,

23 And changed the glory of the incorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and four-footed beasts, and creeping things.

24 Wherefore God also gave them up to uncleanness through the lusts of their own hearts, to dishonor their own bodies between themselves:

1:24, 26, 28 – “God…gave them up” – or “God gave the over.”  God gives us freewill, therefore He must allow sin to take place, but it will run its course and the end result is a devastating judgment.

25 Who changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen.

26 For this cause God gave them up unto vile affections: for even their women did change the natural use into that which is against nature:

27 And likewise also the men, leaving the natural use of the woman, burned in their lust one toward another; men with men working that which is unseemly, and receiving in themselves that recompense of their error which was meet.

Homosexual practice is sinful in God’s eyes; it is a personal attack against Him because it mocks His creation. 

If you go to a restaurant and order steak and the waitress comes back with a hamburger would you be content?

28 And even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not convenient;

“A reprobate mind” – the intent precedes the act.

29 Being filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, debate, deceit, malignity; whisperers,

30 Backbiters, haters of God, despiteful, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents,

Aristophanes was a known Greek playwright who specialized in comedies. He was able to write a total of 40 plays and 11 of these plays have survived and remained intact as complete manuscripts. He is feared during his time because of his sharp writing style that ridiculed and pilloried known Athenians.

Aristophanes was a known Greek playwright who specialized in comedies. He was able to write a total of 40 plays and 11 of these plays have survived and remained intact as complete manuscripts.
He is feared during his time because of his sharp writing style that ridiculed and pilloried known Athenians.

31 Without understanding, covenant breakers, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful:

32 Who knowing the judgment of God, that they which commit such things are worthy of death, not only do the same, but have pleasure in them that do them.

“Knowing” – their outrageous conduct was not due to total ignorance of what God required but to self-will and rebellion.

“Have pleasure in them that do them” – the extreme of sin is applauding, rather than regretting, the sins of others.

That would be the same as watching someone pick up a glass of wine laced with poison and instead of telling them you watch them choke and die.


…the Romans.


The Book of Romans

August 25, 2014

864 - Category

Summary of the Book of Romans

The book of Romans is a Pauline Epistle (letter from Paul). The Apostle Paul wrote it roughly about 56-57 A.D.

The key personalities in the book of Romans are the Apostle Paul, and Phoebe who delivered this letter.

Paul wrote the letter to the believers in Rome, hence the name “Romans.” He wrote it to give them a concrete theological foundation on which to construct their faith and to live for and serve God effectively.864 - 1

The book of Romans reveals the answers to important questions and supplies information on many topics, such as salvation, the sovereignty of God, judgment, spiritual growth, and the righteousness of God.

Many scholars also describe it as The Gospel and the Righteousness of God, which can be received only by faith in the atoning death of Jesus Christ.

The focus of the “righteousness of God” is foundational throughout the book of Romans. In fact, it is threaded through every section of the basic outline of this epistle.

Paul reiterates this so that the reader may realize that salvation cannot be attained through man’s good deeds but only through faith in God’s righteousness:

I am not ashamed of the gospel, because it is the power of God for the salvation of everyone who believes… For in the gospel a righteousness from God is revealed, a righteousness that is by faith (1:16-17).

You cannot repair your relationship with God through your good deeds; this is only accomplished through faith in the perfect and finished work of Jesus Christ.

Chapters 1-8 -  Paul explains the fundamentals and foundations of the Christian faith. This is the Gospel Message, which all believers are commanded to share with the entire world.864 - 2

Some of the most popular and precious memorization passages about Salvation can be found in the first several chapters of Romans:

For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord (6:23).

Paul teaches about the sinful nature of all men in the eyes of God, justification by faith in Jesus Christ, freedom from sin, and victory in Christ.

Chapters 9-11 - Paul explains God’s sovereignty over salvation. He also spells out how an individual may come into a right relationship with God:

If you confess with your mouth Jesus as Lord, and believe in your heart that God raised Him from the dead, you will be saved; for with the heart a person believes, resulting in righteousness, and with the mouth he confesses, resulting in salvation (10:13).

Place your faith and trust only in what Jesus Christ has already done on the cross and make Him the Master of your life and trust He raised Himself from the grave conquering death. His promise is “You will be saved”.

Chapters 12-16 - Paul gives instructions for all Christians about how to live a holy lifestyle. In the beginning of chapter 12 he writes:

Present your bodies a living and holy sacrifice (vs. 1), and

Do not be conformed to this world (vs. 2).

Much of the errors and trials that Paul dealt with in his “Epistles”, were because the believers had conformed their lives to the world and not to God.


Paul’s Second Journey and Acts 28 – The Stopover at Melita

August 23, 2014

The words in Black and Maroon is the text from historical/archaeological facts or the numbered scriptures from the Bible.  
Words in Blue are God – Red is Jesus – Green is Jerry.
Jerry is not a scholar, but a very curious 12 year old boy who loves Jesus and likes to research.
If you have any questions you would like to be answered privately or any subject you would like posted please contact me here.

Greece: Roman Domination and the Growth of Christianity

Following Alexander the Great’s death in 323 B.C., a power struggle ensued among his leading generals. Greece eventually fell under the control of Antigonus and his descendants, referred to as the Antigonids.

The Antigonid dynasty  was a dynasty of Hellenistic kings descended from Alexander the Great's general Antigonus I Monophthalmus ("the One-eyed"). Succeeding the Antipatrid dynasty in much of Macedonia, Antigonus ruled mostly over Asia Minor and northern Syria.  His attempts to take control of the whole of Alexander's empire led to his defeat and death at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 B.C.  Antigonus's son Demetrius I Poliorcetes survived the battle, and managed to seize control of Macedon itself a few years later, but eventually lost his throne, dying in prison.  After a period of confusion, Demetrius's son Antigonus II Gonatas was able to establish the family's control over the old Kingdom of Macedon, as well as over most of the Greek city-states, by 276 B.C.

The Antigonid dynasty was a dynasty of Hellenistic kings descended from Alexander the Great’s general Antigonus I Monophthalmus (“the One-eyed”).
Succeeding the Antipatrid dynasty in much of Macedonia, Antigonus ruled mostly over Asia Minor and northern Syria.
His attempts to take control of the whole of Alexander’s empire led to his defeat and death at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 B.C.
Antigonus’s son Demetrius I Poliorcetes survived the battle, and managed to seize control of Macedon itself a few years later, but eventually lost his throne, dying in prison.
After a period of confusion, Demetrius’s son Antigonus II Gonatas was able to establish the family’s control over the old Kingdom of Macedon, as well as over most of the Greek city-states, by 276 B.C.

 

The malcontent Greeks countered by forming two federal states, the Aetolian League in the north and the Achaean League, led by Corinth, in the south.

Beginning in 214 B.C. the Antigonid king Philip V attempted to punish these states and to tighten his grip on Greece. In response, the Greek states sought help from an emerging power in the west: Rome.

The Romans, who had previously attempted to invade Philip’s territories, answered by dispatching a sizable military force.

In 197 B.C. the Roman general Titus Quinctius Flaminius soundly defeated Philip V’s army in Thessaly. By 196 the “liberation” of Greece was complete, and the Roman province of Achaea was born.

The Romans held Greek civilization in the highest regard and adopted many of its customs and traditions.

Rome protected the great cities and monuments of Greece, as long as Roman dominance was not challenged by the Greeks – who did test this on two occasions, both with disastrous results.

In 172 B.C. Perseus, son of Philip V, invaded Greece in an attempt to win back the lands of his father.

Many Greeks were sympathetic to Perseus, and, after his total defeat in 167, the Romans punished the Greeks by carrying a thousand noble Greek youths to Rome as hostages.

Titus Quinctius Flamininus (c. 229 BC – c. 174 BC) was a Roman politician and general instrumental in the Roman conquest of Greece. A member of the patrician gens Quinctia, and brother to Lucius Quinctius Flamininus, he served as a military tribune in the Second Punic war and in 205 B.C. he was appointed propraetor in Tarentum.  He was a curule aedile in Rome in 203 B.C. and a quaestor in 199 B.C. He became consul in 198 B.C., despite being only about thirty years old, younger than the constitutional age required to serve in that position.  As Livy records, two tribunes, Marcus Fulvius and Manius Curius publicly opposed his candidacy for consulship, as he was just a quaestor, but the Senate overrode the opposition and he was elected along with Sextus Aelius Paulus.

Titus Quinctius Flamininus (c. 229 BC – c. 174 BC) was a Roman politician and general instrumental in the Roman conquest of Greece.
A member of the patrician gens Quinctia, and brother to Lucius Quinctius Flamininus, he served as a military tribune in the Second Punic war and in 205 B.C. he was appointed propraetor in Tarentum.
He was a curule aedile in Rome in 203 B.C. and a quaestor in 199 B.C. He became consul in 198 B.C., despite being only about thirty years old, younger than the constitutional age required to serve in that position.
As Livy records, two tribunes, Marcus Fulvius and Manius Curius publicly opposed his candidacy for consulship, as he was just a quaestor, but the Senate overrode the opposition and he was elected along with Sextus Aelius Paulus.

 

In 146 B.C. the Achaean League, led by Corinth, rose in revolt. The Romans responded by sending the general Mummius, who defeated an insignificant Achaean force and entered Corinth unopposed.

He burned the city, killed its inhabitants and took much of its valuable artwork back to Rome.  This incident put an end to any realistic dreams of resurgent Greek independence.

Corinth was reestablished by Julius Caesar in 44 B.C. as a Roman colony, and the Greeks lived in relative peace within the Roman Empire from that point on.

Corinth, which had major harbors opening to the eastern and western Mediterranean,  grew to be Greece’s commercial capital and most cosmopolitan city.

Athens retained its position as the cultural center of Greece, while Sparta and Thebes became insignificant.  The impressive system of Roman roads brought commercial prowess to other locations in in Greece, such as Thessalonica and Philippi.

Under Rome rule Greece enjoyed something it had never experienced while free: peace.  In this ideal situation, the New Testament church took root and was able to thrive.


This is the last chapter of the Book of Acts, so tomorrow we’ll begin with...

Acts 28
The Stopover at Melita

1 And when they were escaped, then they knew that the island was called Melita.

Titus Quinctius Flamininus (c. 229 BC – c. 174 B.C.) was a Roman politician and general instrumental in the Roman conquest of Greece. A member of the patrician gens Quinctia, and brother to Lucius Quinctius Flamininus, he served as a military tribune in the Second Punic war and in 205 B.C. he was appointed propraetor in Tarentum.  He was a curule aedile in Rome in 203 B.C. and a quaestor in 199 B.C. He became consul in 198 B.C., despite being only about thirty years old, younger than the constitutional age required to serve in that position.  As Livy records, two tribunes, Marcus Fulvius and Manius Curius publicly opposed his candidacy for consulship, as he was just a quaestor, but the Senate overrode the opposition and he was elected along with Sextus Aelius Paulus.

Titus Quinctius Flamininus (c. 229 BC – c. 174 B.C.) was a Roman politician and general instrumental in the Roman conquest of Greece.
A member of the patrician gens Quinctia, and brother to Lucius Quinctius Flamininus, he served as a military tribune in the Second Punic war and in 205 B.C. he was appointed propraetor in Tarentum.
He was a curule aedile in Rome in 203 B.C. and a quaestor in 199 B.C. He became consul in 198 B.C., despite being only about thirty years old, younger than the constitutional age required to serve in that position.
As Livy records, two tribunes, Marcus Fulvius and Manius Curius publicly opposed his candidacy for consulship, as he was just a quaestor, but the Senate overrode the opposition and he was elected along with Sextus Aelius Paulus.

 

2 And the barbarous people shewed us no little kindness: for they kindled a fire, and received us every one, because of the present rain, and because of the cold.

“Barbarous people” – All non-Greek-speaking people were called this by Greeks.  Far from being uncivilized tribesmen, they were Phoenician in ancestry and used a Phoenician dialect but were thoroughly Romanized.

3 And when Paul had gathered a bundle of sticks, and laid them on the fire, there came a viper out of the heat, and fastened on his hand.

4 And when the barbarians saw the venomous beast hang on his hand, they said among themselves, No doubt this man is a murderer, whom, though he hath escaped the sea, yet vengeance suffereth not to live.

5 And he shook off the beast into the fire, and felt no harm.

6 Howbeit they looked when he should have swollen, or fallen down dead suddenly: but after they had looked a great while, and saw no harm come to him, they changed their minds, and said that he was a god.

7 In the same quarters were possessions of the chief man of the island, whose name was Publius; who received us, and lodged us three days courteously.

“Publius” – a Roman name, but the first name and not the family name.  It must have been what the islanders called him.

8 And it came to pass, that the father of Publius lay sick of a fever and of a bloody flux: to whom Paul entered in, and prayed, and laid his hands on him, and healed him.

9 So when this was done, others also, which had diseases in the island, came, and were healed:

10 Who also honored us with many honors; and when we departed, they laded us with such things as were necessary.

11 And after three months we departed in a ship of Alexandria, which had wintered in the isle, whose sign was Castor and Pollux.

12 And landing at Syracuse, we tarried there three days.

“Syracue” – the leading city on the island of Sicily, situated on the east coast.

Lucius Mummius (2nd century B.C.), was a Roman statesman and general. He later received the agnomen Achaicus after conquering Greece. Mummius became praetor in 154 B.C. His ruling domain was further Spain. He experienced reverses there prior to restoring his image with victories against the Lusitanians and Blasto-Phoenicians.  He received a triumph for his victory over the Lusitanians. In 146 B.C., Mummius was appointed to take command of the Achaean War, and having obtained an easy victory over the incapable Diaeus, entered Corinth after a victory over the defending forces.  All the men of Corinth were put to the sword, the women and children were sold into slavery, and the statues, paintings and works of art were seized and shipped to Rome.  Corinth was then reduced to ashes.

Lucius Mummius (2nd century B.C.), was a Roman statesman and general. He later received the agnomen Achaicus after conquering Greece.
Mummius became praetor in 154 B.C. His ruling domain was further Spain. He experienced reverses there prior to restoring his image with victories against the Lusitanians and Blasto-Phoenicians.
He received a triumph for his victory over the Lusitanians.
In 146 B.C., Mummius was appointed to take command of the Achaean War, and having obtained an easy victory over the incapable Diaeus, entered Corinth after a victory over the defending forces.
All the men of Corinth were put to the sword, the women and children were sold into slavery, and the statues, paintings and works of art were seized and shipped to Rome. Corinth was then reduced to ashes.

 

13 And from thence we fetched a compass, and came to Rhegium: and after one day the south wind blew, and we came the next day to Puteoli:

“Rhegium” – a town on the coast of Italy, near the southwestern tip and close to the narrowest point of the strait separating that country from Sicily, opposite Messina.

Around the promontory north of the town was the whirlpool of Charybdis and the rock of Scylla.  Coming from his triumph in Judea, the General Titus landed here on his way to Rome.

“Puteoli” – modern Pozzuloi, almost 200 miles from Rhegium.  It was situated in the northern part of the Bay of Naples and was the chief port of Rome, though 75 miles away.  The population included Jews and Christians.

14 Where we found brethren, and were desired to tarry with them seven days: and so we went toward Rome.

15 And from thence, when the brethren heard of us, they came to meet us as far as Appii forum, and The three taverns: whom when Paul saw, he thanked God, and took courage.

“Appii forum” – or the market of Appius which was a small town 43 miles from Rome, noted for its wickedness.  Some Roman Christians came this far to meet Paul.  Beyond this they would not be certain of the way he would come.

“The Three Taverns” – or Three Inns, a town 33 miles from Rome.  Other Roman believers met Paul here.  The term “inn” was used to designate any kind of shop.

16 And when we came to Rome, the centurion delivered the prisoners to the captain of the guard: but Paul was suffered to dwell by himself with a soldier that kept him.

17 And it came to pass, that after three days Paul called the chief of the Jews together: and when they were come together, he said unto them, Men and brethren, though I have committed nothing against the people, or customs of our fathers, yet was I delivered prisoner from Jerusalem into the hands of the Romans.

“Chief of the Jews” – the decree of the emperor or Claudius had been allowed to lapse, and Jews had returned to Rome with their leaders.

18 Who, when they had examined me, would have let me go, because there was no cause of death in me.

19 But when the Jews spake against it, I was constrained to appeal unto Caesar; not that I had ought to accuse my nation of.

20 For this cause therefore have I called for you, to see you, and to speak with you: because that for the hope of Israel I am bound with this chain.

21 And they said unto him, We neither received letters out of Judaea concerning thee, neither any of the brethren that came shewed or spake any harm of thee.

22 But we desire to hear of thee what thou thinkest: for as concerning this sect, we know that everywhere it is spoken against.

23 And when they had appointed him a day, there came many to him into his lodging; to whom he expounded and testified the kingdom of God, persuading them concerning Jesus, both out of the law of Moses, and out of the prophets, from morning till evening.

Gaius Julius Caesar, July 100 B.C. – 15 March 44 B.C.) was a Roman general, statesman, Consul, and notable author of Latin prose.  He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.  In 60 B.C., Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey formed a political alliance that was to dominate Roman politics for several years.  Their attempts to amass power through populist tactics were opposed by the conservative ruling class within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero.  Caesar's conquest of Gaul, completed by 51 B.C., extended Rome's territory to the English Channel and the Rhine.  Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both when he built a bridge across the Rhine and conducted the first invasion of Britain.

Gaius Julius Caesar, July 100 B.C. – 15 March 44 B.C.) was a Roman general, statesman, Consul, and notable author of Latin prose.
He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
In 60 B.C., Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey formed a political alliance that was to dominate Roman politics for several years.
Their attempts to amass power through populist tactics were opposed by the conservative ruling class within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero.
Caesar’s conquest of Gaul, completed by 51 B.C., extended Rome’s territory to the English Channel and the Rhine.
Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both when he built a bridge across the Rhine and conducted the first invasion of Britain.

 

24 And some believed the things which were spoken, and some believed not.

25 And when they agreed not among themselves, they departed, after that Paul had spoken one word, Well spake the Holy Ghost by Esaias the prophet unto our fathers,

26 Saying, Go unto this people, and say, Hearing ye shall hear, and shall not understand; and seeing ye shall see, and not perceive:

27 For the heart of this people is waxed gross, and their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes have they closed; lest they should see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and should be converted, and I should heal them.

28 Be it known therefore unto you, that the salvation of God is sent unto the Gentiles, and that they will hear it.

29 And when he had said these words, the Jews departed, and had great reasoning among themselves.

30 And Paul dwelt two whole years in his own hired house, and received all that came in unto him,

“Two whole years” – Paul served the Lord during the full period of waiting for his accusers to press the trial in Rome.  There are a number of indications that he was released form this imprisonment:

1. Acts stops abruptly at this time.

2. Paul wrote to churches expecting to visit them soon; so he must have anticipated a release.

3. A number of the details in the Pastoral Letters do not fit into the historical setting given in the book of Acts.  Following the close of the book, these details indicate a return to Asia Minor, Crete and Greece.

4. Tradition indicates that Paul went to Spain.  

Even if he did not go, the very fact that a tradition arose suggests a time when he could have taken that journey.

31 Preaching the kingdom of God, and teaching those things which concern the Lord Jesus Christ, with all confidence, no man forbidding him.


…the Book of Romans.


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